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Chapter 1 & 2 Review

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

The person responsible for establishing psychology as an independent discipline with its own subject matter is
a.
G. Stanley Hall
b.
René Descartes
c.
William James
d.
Wilhelm Wundt
 

 2. 

The person who established America's first psychological research laboratory and who launched America's first psychology journal was
a.
John Watson
b.
William James
c.
G. Stanley Hall
d.
Edward Titchener
 

 3. 

The school of psychology associated with understanding the purpose of behavior was
a.
functionalism
b.
behaviorism
c.
neodynamism
d.
psychoanalysis
 

 4. 

The first woman to serve as President of the American Psychological Association was
a.
Mary Calkins
b.
Margaret Washburn
c.
Leta Hollingworth
d.
Anna Freud
 

 5. 

The notion that unconscious motivations can influence our overt behavior is most consistent with the views of
a.
Carl Rogers
b.
Wilhelm Wundt
c.
B. F. Skinner
d.
Sigmund Freud
 

 6. 

Sigmund Freud developed an innovative procedure for treating people with psychological problems, which he called
a.
behavior modification
b.
primal therapy
c.
psychoanalysis
d.
rational-emotive therapy
 

 7. 

Freud concluded that psychological disturbances are largely caused by
a.
unrealistic demands from family and friends
b.
personal conflicts existing at an unconscious level
c.
genetic predispositions to behave in a particular way
d.
conflicts between conscious desires and environmental constraints
 

 8. 

The psychologist who proposed that the study of consciousness should be replaced by the study of behavior was
a.
John B. Watson
b.
Abraham Maslow
c.
G. Stanley Hall
d.
Sigmund Freud
 

 9. 

With which of the following statements would a behaviorist agree?
a.
Conscious experiences can be studied in an objective, precise way.
b.
In order to understand behavior, one must understand the motives behind the behavior.
c.
Behavior can only be explained in terms of phenomenology, that is, an individual's interpretation of experience.
d.
Psychology should be the science of behavior that can be observed by others.
 

 10. 

According to John Watson, behavior is governed primarily by
a.
heredity
b.
personal motives
c.
the environment
d.
unconscious desires
 

 11. 

With which of the following individuals is B. F. Skinner most in agreement on the issue of internal mental events?
a.
John Watson
b.
Sigmund Freud
c.
Wilhelm Wundt
d.
Abraham Maslow
 

 12. 

The school of psychology that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, and suggests that we have a drive for personal growth is
a.
humanism
b.
psychoanalysis
c.
behaviorism
d.
functionalism
 

 13. 

The branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders is called
a.
industrial psychology
b.
social psychology
c.
developmental psychology
d.
clinical psychology
 

 14. 

Historically, most of psychology's research has been conducted in
a.
China
b.
Japan
c.
Mexico
d.
the United States
 

 15. 

Which of the following best characterizes a psychologist's current understanding of the relationship between heredity and environment?
a.
motives and expectations can color our experiences
b.
genetic factors and experience interact to shape behavior
c.
our cultural backgrounds exert a considerable influence over our behavior
d.
theoretical diversity is an important component in science
 

 16. 

Any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study are called
a.
hypotheses
b.
correlations
c.
variables
d.
confounds
 

 17. 

Manipulating a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observing the changes in a second variable defines
a.
the testing approach
b.
the survey approach
c.
the experimental approach
d.
naturalistic observation
 

 18. 

In an experiment, the variable that is controlled or manipulated by the researcher is called the
a.
dependent variable
b.
independent variable
c.
control variable
d.
stimulus variable
 

 19. 

If we view an experiment as an attempt to establish a cause-effect relationship, the ____ variable would be the cause, and the ____ variable would be the effect.
a.
dependent; independent
b.
independent; dependent
c.
control; experimental
d.
independent; confounded
 

 20. 

David and Alexandra both take part in a research study that is investigating the effects of sleep deprivation on reaction time. David is kept awake for 24 hours straight, while Alexandra follows her normal sleep routine. In this study, David is part of the
a.
hypothesis group
b.
experimental group
c.
control group
d.
dependent variable group
 

 21. 

By definition, an extraneous variable is
a.
a variable that affects the control group but not the experimental group
b.
the same thing as a dependent variable
c.
a variable that is completely irrelevant to both the independent and dependent variables
d.
a variable, other than the independent variable, that may influence the dependent variable
 

 22. 

In experiments, placing subjects in experimental groups such that each subject has an equal probability of ending up in any experimental group is referred to as
a.
random selection
b.
random sampling
c.
random forecasting
d.
random assignment
 

 23. 

One of the disadvantages of the experimental method is
a.
the inability to generate cause-and-effect conclusions
b.
the length of time necessary to complete the study
c.
the fact that only one variable can be studied at a time
d.
the fact that experiments often can't be done for practical or ethical reasons
 

 24. 

Which research method involves an in-depth investigation of an individual subject?
a.
an experiment
b.
a case study
c.
a survey
d.
a naturalistic observation
 

 25. 

Statistics can be used to do all of the below EXCEPT
a.
summarize observations
b.
organize observations
c.
interpret observations
d.
prove observations
 

 26. 

The median is
a.
the score that falls exactly in the center of a distribution
b.
the arithmetic average of the scores in a distribution
c.
the score that occurs most frequently in a distribution
d.
the difference between the largest and the smallest scores in a distribution
 

 27. 

Your grade point average is an example of which measure of central tendency?
a.
median
b.
mean
c.
mode
d.
midpoint
 

 28. 

The correlation coefficient is a measure of
a.
central tendency
b.
the amount of variability in a data set
c.
the degree of relationship between two variables
d.
the difference between the largest and smallest scores in a data set
 

 29. 

Suppose a researcher discovered a +.87 correlation between the length of a person's toes and the number of shoes the person owns. In general, people who own the fewest number of shoes would have
a.
small toes
b.
large toes
c.
medium-sized toes
d.
either very large or very small toes
 

 30. 

As interest rates increase, house sales decline, indicating
a.
a direct correlation between the two variables
b.
a negative correlation between the two variables
c.
a positive correlation between the two variables
d.
no correlation between the two variables
 

 31. 

Which of the following best describes the view of the mind held by Plato and Socrates?
a.
The mind should be studied through careful, empirical observations.
b.
The mind is an illusion produced by the brain.
c.
The mind is separate from the body and continues after the body dies.
d.
The mind is made up of knowledge that is a result of our experiences.
e.
The mind results from biological processes produced by neural transmissions.
 

 32. 

Which philosopher was the first to conclude that knowledge results from our memories of our experiences?
a.
Plato
b.
Socrates
c.
Kant
d.
Descartes
e.
Aristotle
 

 33. 

Who used the method of introspection to scientifically identify basic elements of mind?
a.
Aristotle
b.
John Locke
c.
Edward Titchener
d.
John Watson
e.
Socrates
 

 34. 

The early school of psychology known as functionalism was developed by
a.
Wilhelm Wundt.
b.
William James.
c.
René Descartes.
d.
John B. Watson.
e.
Sigmund Freud.
 

 35. 

In explaining human behavior, psychoanalysts are likely to focus on ________, whereas humanistic psychologists concentrate on ________.
a.
evolved functions of our thoughts and feelings; self-reports of immediate physical sensations
b.
observable behavior; the way we perceive, process, and remember information
c.
childhood experiences and unconscious thought processes; current environmental influences on potential
d.
introspective reports of immediate sensations; empirical research relying on observation and experimentation
e.
the study of brain activity linked with mental activity; the examination of the stream of consciousness and emotion
 

 36. 

In the 1960s, humanistic psychologists considered the approach advanced by behaviorists to be excessively
a.
illogical.
b.
biological.
c.
introspective.
d.
limited.
e.
cognitive.
 

 37. 

Which perspective is most directly concerned with how the physical properties of the brain influence behaviors and mental states?
a.
cognitive
b.
social-cultural
c.
psychodynamic
d.
behavioral
e.
biological
 

 38. 

A concern with the reasoning processes that contribute to effective problem solving is most characteristic of the ________ perspective.
a.
behavioral
b.
evolutionary
c.
social-cultural
d.
cognitive
e.
biological
 

 39. 

A theoretical perspective in psychology can be like a two-dimensional view of a three-dimensional object because each perspective is
a.
limited in its scope.
b.
likely to contradict other perspectives.
c.
based on assumptions shared by other perspectives.
d.
of little value for applied research.
e.
impossible to test scientifically.
 

 40. 

Dr. Lipka is involved in an applied research study of customer satisfaction with a newly developed line of facial cosmetics and other beauty aids. Dr. Lipka is most likely a(n) ________ psychologist.
a.
clinical
b.
developmental
c.
social
d.
personality
e.
industrial-organizational
 

 41. 

Clinical psychologists specialize in
a.
constructing surveys.
b.
animal research.
c.
providing therapy to troubled people.
d.
providing drugs to treat behavioral disorders.
e.
studying how people solve complicated mental puzzles.
 

 42. 

Mr. Kay is interested in whether individual differences affect learning. Mr. Kay is most likely a(n) ________ psychologist.
a.
human factors
b.
developmental
c.
educational
d.
social
e.
clinical
 

 43. 

Thinking that she had outperformed most of her classmates, Glenda was surprised to receive just an average grade on her psychology test. Glenda's experience best illustrates
a.
overconfidence.
b.
the hindsight bias.
c.
the placebo effect.
d.
negative correlation.
e.
illusory correlation.
 

 44. 

What is the advantage of researchers using an empirical approach in evaluating the accuracy of eyewitness testimony?
a.
Researchers would experience greater overconfidence in their findings.
b.
Such an approach allows researchers to set aside their critical thinking and explore their intuition.
c.
Under controlled conditions, researchers collect evidence that may justify a cause-effect conclusion.
d.
The empirical approach fosters conditions necessary for hindsight bias to occur.
e.
Researchers may greatly overestimate eyewitness recollections when using the empirical approach.
 

 45. 

The complete set of cases from which samples may be drawn is called a(n)
a.
control condition.
b.
population.
c.
case study.
d.
independent variable.
e.
survey.
 

 46. 

In order to learn about the political attitudes of all students enrolled at Arizona State University, Professor Marlow randomly selected 800 of these students to complete a questionnaire. In this instance, all the students enrolled at Arizona State University are considered to be a(n)
a.
independent variable.
b.
representative sample.
c.
control.
d.
dependent variable.
e.
population.
 

 47. 

Correlational research is most useful for purposes of
a.
explanation.
b.
prediction.
c.
control.
d.
replication.
e.
experimentation.
 

 48. 

In a test of the effects of sleep deprivation on problem-solving skills, research participants are allowed to sleep either 4 or 8 hours on each of three consecutive nights. This research is an example of
a.
naturalistic observation.
b.
survey research.
c.
a case study.
d.
an experiment.
e.
a correlational study.
 

 49. 

Both the researchers and the participants in a memory study are ignorant about which participants have actually received a potentially memory-enhancing drug and which have received a placebo. This investigation involves the use of
a.
naturalistic observation.
b.
the hindsight bias.
c.
random sampling.
d.
the double-blind procedure.
e.
replication.
 

 50. 

In a drug treatment study, participants given a pill containing no actual drug are receiving a(n)
a.
random sample.
b.
experimental treatment.
c.
double-blind.
d.
replication.
e.
placebo.
 

 51. 

Which measure of central tendency would be most appropriate in determining housing values in a particular community?
a.
range
b.
mode
c.
median
d.
mean
e.
standard deviation
 

 52. 

During the last Central High School basketball game, the starting five players scored 11, 7, 21, 14, and 7 points, respectively. For this distribution of scores, the range is
a.
7.
b.
11.
c.
12.
d.
14.
e.
21.
 

 53. 

Which of the following defines ethical principles that should guide human experimentation?
a.
control group, random sampling, random assignment
b.
case study, naturalistic observation, survey
c.
informed consent, protection from harm, confidentiality, debriefing
d.
volunteer participants only, no deception, incentives for participation
e.
effect size, statistical significance, measures of central tendency, variation
 

 54. 

The biopsychosocial approach provides an understanding of social-cultural influences integrated within the larger framework of
a.
functionalism.
b.
introspection.
c.
humanistic psychology.
d.
multiple levels of analysis.
e.
structuralism.
 

 55. 

Which perspective is most relevant to understanding the impact of strokes and brain diseases on memory?
a.
evolutionary
b.
behavioral
c.
psychodynamic
d.
biological
e.
humanistic
 

 56. 

The distinctive feature of the psychodynamic perspective is its emphasis on
a.
natural selection.
b.
brain chemistry.
c.
unconscious conflicts.
d.
learned behaviors.
e.
introspection.
 

 57. 

When we see certain outcomes as obvious based on what has occurred, we may be experiencing
a.
empiricism.
b.
critical thinking.
c.
hindsight bias.
d.
overconfidence.
e.
humility.
 

 58. 

Hypotheses are best described as
a.
assumptions.
b.
replications.
c.
explanations.
d.
confirmations.
e.
predictions.
 

 59. 

Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the strongest degree of relationship between two variables?
a.
+0.10
b.
–0.67
c.
0.00
d.
–0.10
e.
+0.59
 

 60. 

The arithmetic average of a distribution of scores is the
a.
mode.
b.
median.
c.
standard deviation.
d.
mean.
e.
range.
 



 
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