Name: 
 

Unit 3



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Dendrites are branching extensions of
a.
neurotransmitters.
b.
endorphins.
c.
neurons.
d.
myelin.
e.
endocrine glands.
 

 2. 

The function of dendrites is to
a.
receive incoming signals from other neurons.
b.
release neurotransmitters into the spatial junctions between neurons.
c.
coordinate the activation of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.
d.
control pain through the release of opiate-like chemicals into the brain.
e.
transmit signals to other neurons.
 

 3. 

In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the ________ of a single neuron.
a.
cell body to the axon to the dendrites
b.
dendrites to the axon to the cell body
c.
axon to the cell body to the dendrites
d.
dendrites to the cell body to the axon
e.
axon to the dendrites to the cell body
 

 4. 

A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the
a.
synapse.
b.
agonist.
c.
action potential.
d.
myelin sheath.
e.
refractory period.
 

 5. 

The part of a neuron that transmits neural messages to other neurons or to muscles or glands is called the
a.
dendrite.
b.
soma.
c.
association area.
d.
axon.
e.
cell body.
 

 6. 

With regard to the process of neural transmission, a refractory period refers to a time interval in which
a.
a neuron fires more rapidly than usual.
b.
an electrical charge travels from a sensory neuron to a motor neuron.
c.
positively charged ions are pumped back outside a neural membrane.
d.
am individual reflexively withdraws from a pain stimulus.
e.
dendrites transmit more electrical signals to axons.
 

 7. 

The minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse is called the
a.
reflex.
b.
threshold.
c.
synapse.
d.
action potential.
e.
refractory period.
 

 8. 

Neurotransmitters are released from vesicles located on knoblike terminals at the end of the
a.
dendrites.
b.
cell body.
c.
axon.
d.
myelin sheath.
e.
soma.
 

 9. 

An undersupply of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter known as ________ is linked to seizures.
a.
glutamate
b.
GABA
c.
serotonin
d.
ACh
e.
dopamine
 

 10. 

Psychoactive drugs interfere with normal neural transmission. Where does this interference take place?
a.
axon
b.
cell body
c.
myelin sheath
d.
synapse
e.
hormones
 

 11. 

Motor neurons are an important part of the
a.
limbic system.
b.
reticular formation.
c.
peripheral nervous system.
d.
brainstem.
e.
cereberal cortex.
 

 12. 

While you are hiking in the mountains, a rattlesnake slithers across your trail. Which of the following triggers the “fight-or-flight” response, increasing your heart rate and blood pressure, as you run away?
a.
somatic nervous system
b.
sympathetic nervous system
c.
motor cortex
d.
limbic system
e.
parasympathetic nervous system
 

 13. 

Neural networks refer to
a.
the branching extensions of a neuron.
b.
interconnected clusters of neurons in the central nervous system.
c.
neural cables containing many axons.
d.
junctions between sending and receiving neurons.
e.
neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body.
 

 14. 

People can simultaneously process many aspects of sensory information such as color, shape, and size. This best illustrates the functioning of multiple
a.
ACh agonists.
b.
dendrites.
c.
endorphins.
d.
neural networks.
e.
ACh antagonists.
 

 15. 

The ovaries in females and the testes in males are part of the
a.
peripheral system.
b.
endocrine system.
c.
sympathetic nervous system.
d.
somatic system.
e.
central nervous system.
 

 16. 

To identify which specific brain areas are most active during a particular mental task, researchers would be most likely to make use of a(n)
a.
fMRI.
b.
hemispherectomy.
c.
ACh agonist.
d.
brain lesion.
e.
MRI.
 

 17. 

The medulla is to the control of ________ as the cerebellum is to the control of ________.
a.
eating; sleeping
b.
breathing; walking
c.
emotion; motivation
d.
memory; attention
e.
hearing; seeing
 

 18. 

The brain structure that provides a major link between the nervous system and the endocrine system is the
a.
cerebellum.
b.
amygdala.
c.
reticular formation.
d.
hypothalamus.
e.
medulla.
 

 19. 

In 1848, Phineas Gage, a railroad construction foreman, survived when an explosion drove an iron rod through his head. The once friendly, soft-spoken Gage became irritable and dishonest. Gage's case provided evidence that which region of the brain plays a role in personality and behavior?
a.
temporal lobes
b.
sensory cortex
c.
frontal lobes
d.
parietal lobes
e.
Broca's area
 

 20. 

By simply thinking about a move, which activates their brain cells, people may be able to move a robotic arm. This best illustrates
a.
neurogenesis.
b.
constraint-induced therapy.
c.
neural prosthetics.
d.
magnetic resonance imaging.
e.
hemispheric specialization.
 

 21. 

The most extensive regions of the cerebral cortex, which enable learning and memory, are called the
a.
reticular formation.
b.
medulla.
c.
sensory areas.
d.
cerebellum.
e.
association areas.
 

 22. 

After he suffered a stroke, Mr. Santore's physical coordination skills and responsiveness to sensory stimulation quickly returned to normal. Unfortunately, however, he began to experience unusual difficulty figuring out how to find his way to various locations in his neighborhood. It is most likely that Mr. Santore suffered damage to his
a.
cerebellum.
b.
thalamus.
c.
hypothalamus.
d.
association areas.
e.
autonomic nervous system.
 

 23. 

Which brain area is primarily involved with understanding meaningful speech?
a.
sensory cortex
b.
angular gyrus
c.
association areas
d.
Wernicke's area
e.
hypothalamus
 

 24. 

Physical exercise and exposure to stimulating environments are most likely to promote
a.
phrenology.
b.
neurogenesis.
c.
hemispherectomy.
d.
reward deficiency syndrome.
e.
plasticity.
 

 25. 

Information is most quickly transmitted from one cerebral hemisphere to the other by the
a.
medulla.
b.
corpus callosum.
c.
angular gyrus.
d.
limbic system.
e.
reticular formation.
 

 26. 

Psychologist Michael Gazzaniga asked split-brain patients to stare at a dot as he flashed HE·ART on a screen. HE appeared in the left visual field, ART in the right. When asked to point to the word with their left hand, patients pointed to
a.
HE.
b.
ART.
c.
HEART.
d.
EA.
e.
nothing. They were unable to complete the task.
 

 27. 

Neurosurgeons have severed the corpus callosum in human patients in order to reduce
a.
aphasia.
b.
epileptic seizures.
c.
depression.
d.
neural plasticity.
e.
reward deficiency syndrome.
 

 28. 

When the “Jim twins,” identical twins separated at birth, were reunited 38 years later, surprising similarities were discovered. Although they had married women of the same name, named their sons and dogs the same names, one should be cautious before attributing these similarities to genetic factors because
a.
most twin studies have not been replicated.
b.
the Jim twins were raised in completely different environments.
c.
many fraternal twins show greater psychological differences.
d.
any two strangers are likely to share coincidental similarities.
e.
genes influence physical not psychological characteristics.
 

 29. 

Although identical twins have been shown to have some amazing psychological similarities, one should be cautious about attributing these similarities to genetic factors because
a.
the twins may have been raised in completely different environments.
b.
genetic factors influence physical, not psychological, characteristics.
c.
any two strangers are likely to share a string of coincidental similarities.
d.
many fraternal twins have been shown to be psychologically different from each other.
e.
most twin studies have not been replicated or validated.
 

 30. 

Gender differences in heritable personality traits cannot necessarily be attributed to male-female genetic differences because
a.
physical maturation proceeds at a different rate for males and females.
b.
variations in personality contribute to gender differences.
c.
heritable traits can be influenced by social environments.
d.
males and females are also affected by their different sex hormones.
e.
chromosomal adaptation has not been accounted for.
 

 31. 

Because Marla is the first girl in her fourth-grade class to sexually mature, she is sometimes teased and rejected by her classmates. Marla's sense of social isolation and embarrassment result from the interaction of
a.
chromosomes.
b.
nature and nurture.
c.
DNA and genes.
d.
genomes.
e.
home environment and school environment.
 

 32. 

Evolutionary psychology studies the evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of
a.
humanism.
b.
behaviorism.
c.
naturalistic observation.
d.
natural selection.
e.
genome mapping.
 

 33. 

Critics of evolutionary psychology are most likely to suggest that it underestimates the
a.
impact of genetic predispositions on human sexual behavior.
b.
impact of cultural expectations on human sexual behavior.
c.
variety of traits that contribute to reproductively successful behaviors.
d.
extent to which certain gender differences in sexual behavior are common to all cultures.
e.
number of human traits influenced by genetics.
 

 34. 

The nineteenth-century theory that bumps on the skull reveal a person's abilities and traits is called
a.
evolutionary psychology.
b.
behavior genetics.
c.
molecular biology.
d.
biological psychology.
e.
phrenology.
 

 35. 

The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by a(n)
a.
sympathetic nerve.
b.
myelin sheath.
c.
endocrine gland.
d.
pituitary gland.
e.
synaptic vesicle.
 

 36. 

As you are reading this question, the cells in your eyes are firing in response to the light coming from this paper. Which type of neuron is carrying this message to the brain?
a.
interneuron
b.
sensory
c.
presynaptic
d.
motor
e.
efferent
 

 37. 

The depolarization of a neural membrane can create a(n)
a.
action potential.
b.
myelin sheath.
c.
lesion.
d.
neural network.
e.
interneuron.
 

 38. 

Resting potential is to action potential as ________ is to ________.
a.
adrenal gland; pituitary gland
b.
sensory neuron; motor neuron
c.
temporal lobe; occipital lobe
d.
polarization; depolarization
e.
dendrite; axon
 

 39. 

The spatial junctions where impulses are chemically transmitted from one neuron to another are called
a.
neurotransmitters.
b.
neural networks.
c.
synapses.
d.
axons.
e.
thresholds.
 

 40. 

Reuptake refers to the
a.
movement of neurotransmitter molecules across a synaptic gap.
b.
release of hormones into the bloodstream.
c.
inflow of positively charged ions through an axon membrane.
d.
reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron.
e.
the ending of the refractory period.
 

 41. 

Prozac, a drug commonly prescribed to treat depression, prevents the sending neuron from taking in excess serotonin. Which process does this drug prevent from taking place?
a.
depolarization
b.
reuptake
c.
the all-or-none response
d.
an action potential
e.
a refractory period
 

 42. 

Transferring messages from a motor neuron to a leg muscle requires the neurotransmitter known as
a.
dopamine.
b.
epinephrine.
c.
acetylcholine.
d.
insulin.
e.
endorphin.
 

 43. 

Opiate drugs occupy the same receptor sites as
a.
acetylcholine.
b.
serotonin.
c.
endorphins.
d.
dopamine.
e.
epinephrine.
 

 44. 

An undersupply of serotonin is most closely linked to
a.
Alzheimer's disease.
b.
schizophrenia.
c.
Parkinson's disease.
d.
depression.
e.
euphoria.
 

 45. 

Alzheimer's disease is most closely linked to the deterioration of neurons that produce
a.
dopamine.
b.
acetylcholine.
c.
epinephrine.
d.
endorphins.
e.
glutamate.
 

 46. 

Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for the neurotransmitter
a.
dopamine.
b.
epinephrine.
c.
acetylcholine.
d.
serotonin.
e.
GABA.
 

 47. 

What are the molecules that are similar enough to a neurotransmitter to bind to its receptor sites on a dendrite and mimic that neurotransmitter's effects called?
a.
agonists
b.
antagonists
c.
endorphins
d.
endocrines
e.
action potentials
 

 48. 

A person with schizophrenia may have an overactive dopamine system. Drugs used to treat this disorder prevent the action of dopamine by keeping it from binding to its receptors. These drugs are
a.
agonists.
b.
somatic.
c.
sympathetic.
d.
antagonists.
e.
selectively permeable.
 

 49. 

For you to be able to run, ________ must relay messages from your central nervous system to your leg muscles.
a.
interneurons
b.
agonists
c.
motor neurons
d.
sensory neurons
e.
the autonomic nervous system
 

 50. 

For you to experience the pain of a sprained ankle, ________ must first relay messages from your ankle to your central nervous system.
a.
endocrines
b.
interneurons
c.
glands
d.
motor neurons
e.
sensory neurons
 

 51. 

The somatic nervous system is a component of the ________ nervous system.
a.
peripheral
b.
autonomic
c.
central
d.
sympathetic
e.
parasympathetic
 

 52. 

An accelerated heartbeat is to a slowed heartbeat as the ________ nervous system is to the ________ nervous system.
a.
somatic; autonomic
b.
autonomic; somatic
c.
central; peripheral
d.
sympathetic; parasympathetic
e.
parasympathetic; sympathetic
 

 53. 

Motor neurons are to the ________ nervous system as interneurons are to the ________ nervous system.
a.
sympathetic; parasympathetic
b.
central; peripheral
c.
autonomic; somatic
d.
parasympathetic; sympathetic
e.
peripheral; central
 

 54. 

Information travels from the spinal cord to the brain via
a.
interneurons.
b.
the circulatory system.
c.
sensory neurons.
d.
the sympathetic nervous system.
e.
the endocrine system.
 

 55. 

A football quarterback can simultaneously make calculations of receiver distances, player movements, and gravitational forces. This best illustrates the activity of multiple
a.
endocrine glands.
b.
endorphin agonists.
c.
neural networks.
d.
endorphin antagonists.
e.
thresholds.
 

 56. 

Sheelah was able to jerk her hand out of the scalding water before sensing any pain because this withdrawal reflex
a.
was activated by interneurons in her spinal cord.
b.
did not involve activity in her central nervous system.
c.
was activated by the rapidly responding brain.
d.
was activated by her self-regulating autonomic nervous system.
e.
was controlled by both her nervous system and impulses from her endocrine system.
 

 57. 

Hormones are the chemical messengers of the
a.
action potential.
b.
autonomic nervous system.
c.
endocrine system.
d.
peripheral nervous system.
e.
central nervous system.
 

 58. 

Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into
a.
synaptic gaps.
b.
the bloodstream.
c.
dendrites.
d.
sensory neurons.
e.
interneurons.
 

 59. 

If a professor accused you of cheating on a test, your adrenal glands would probably release ________ into your bloodstream.
a.
endorphins
b.
acetylcholine
c.
seratonin
d.
epinephrine
e.
insulin
 

 60. 

At the age of 22, Mrs. LaBlanc was less than 4 feet tall. Her short stature was probably influenced by the lack of a growth hormone produced by the
a.
pancreas.
b.
thyroid.
c.
adrenal gland.
d.
pituitary gland.
e.
myelin.
 

 61. 

Sleep researchers who are interested in brain wave activity are likely to use which kind of brain scan?
a.
EEG
b.
CT
c.
fMRI
d.
PET
e.
MRI
 

 62. 

A brain lesion refers to ________ of brain tissue.
a.
electrical stimulation
b.
X-ray photography
c.
radioactive bombardment
d.
destruction
e.
development
 

 63. 

The best way to detect enlarged fluid-filled brain regions in some patients who have schizophrenia is to use a(n)
a.
EEG.
b.
MRI.
c.
PET scan.
d.
brain lesion.
e.
X-ray.
 

 64. 

The concentration of glucose in active regions of the brain underlies the usefulness of a(n)
a.
MRI.
b.
brain lesion.
c.
EEG.
d.
PET scan.
e.
hemispherectomy.
 

 65. 

What is the main difference between an MRI scan and an fMRI scan?
a.
MRI scans are able to show internal structures of the brain, fMRI scans can also show external structures.
b.
MRI scans use X-rays, fMRI scans use gamma rays.
c.
MRI scans measure glucose levels in the brain, fMRI scans measure oxygen levels.
d.
MRI scans show structural details of the brain, fMRI scans show structure and activity levels.
e.
MRI scans measure brain wave activity, fMRI scans use a series of X-ray images to show structural details.
 

 66. 

The sequence of brain regions from the evolutionarily oldest to newest is
a.
limbic system; brainstem; cerebral cortex.
b.
brainstem; cerebral cortex; limbic system.
c.
limbic system; cerebral cortex; brainstem.
d.
brainstem; limbic system; cerebral cortex.
e.
cerebral cortex; brainstem; limbic system.
 

 67. 

Your life would be most immediately threatened if you suffered destruction of the
a.
amygdala.
b.
hippocampus.
c.
angular gyrus.
d.
corpus callosum.
e.
medulla.
 

 68. 

Which region of your brainstem plays a role in arousing you to a state of alertness when someone nearby mentions your name?
a.
reticular formation
b.
cerebellum
c.
hypothalamus
d.
amygdala
e.
medulla
 

 69. 

Your ability to experience physical sensations is most likely to be disrupted by damage to your
a.
corpus callosum.
b.
angular gyrus.
c.
hippocampus.
d.
amygdala.
e.
thalamus.
 

 70. 

Which brain structure receives information from all the senses except smell?
a.
hippocampus
b.
amygdala
c.
pons
d.
thalamus
e.
medulla.
 

 71. 

Ellen volunteers during her AP psychology class to try to balance a yardstick on her two fingers. While her eyes are open, she finds the task quite easy. However, when she closes her eyes, she finds the same task almost impossible. Which brain region relies on visual information in coordinating our voluntary movements?
a.
hypothalamus
b.
reticular formation
c.
thalamus
d.
amygdala
e.
cerebellum
 

 72. 

After Kato's serious motorcycle accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebellum. Kato is most likely to have difficulty
a.
experiencing intense emotions.
b.
reading printed words.
c.
understanding what others are saying.
d.
tasting the flavors of foods.
e.
playing his guitar.
 

 73. 

Thinking about sex (in your brain's cerebral cortex) can stimulate a region of the limbic system to secrete hormones. These hormones trigger the pituitary gland to influence hormones released by other glands in the body. Which brain region influences the endocrine system?
a.
hippocampus
b.
amygdala
c.
thalamus
d.
reticular formation
e.
hypothalamus
 

 74. 

Which of the following is the component of the limbic system that plays an essential role in the processing of new memories?
a.
hypothalamus
b.
thalamus
c.
hippocampus
d.
medulla
e.
cerebellum
 

 75. 

To demonstrate that brain stimulation can make a rat violently aggressive, a neuroscientist should electrically stimulate the rat's
a.
reticular formation.
b.
cerebellum.
c.
medulla.
d.
amygdala.
e.
thalamus.
 

 76. 

Animal research has revealed a general reward system that triggers the release of the neurotransmitter
a.
ACh.
b.
GABA.
c.
dopamine.
d.
epinephrine.
e.
serotonin.
 

 77. 

The thin surface layer of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebrum is called the
a.
cerebellum.
b.
corpus callosum.
c.
reticular formation.
d.
cerebral cortex.
e.
sensory cortex.
 

 78. 

Your conscious awareness of your own name and self-identity depends primarily on the normal functioning of your
a.
cerebellum.
b.
amygdala.
c.
hypothalamus.
d.
sympathetic nervous system.
e.
cerebral cortex.
 

 79. 

The occipital lobes are to ________ as the temporal lobes are to ________.
a.
hearing; sensing movement
b.
seeing; sensing touch
c.
sensing pleasure; sensing pain
d.
seeing; hearing
e.
speaking; hearing
 

 80. 

Which lobes of the brain receive the input that enables you to feel someone scratching your back?
a.
parietal
b.
temporal
c.
occipital
d.
frontal
e.
cerebral.
 

 81. 

Our lips are more sensitive than our knees to sensations of touch due to which of the following?
a.
More neurotransmitters are released when the lips are touched.
b.
A larger area of the sensory cortex is associated with our lips.
c.
The dendrites connected to the lips are especially sensitive.
d.
The medulla routes impulses from the lips directly to our brainstem.
e.
Our lips are directly connected to the sensory cortex, but our knees are not.
 

 82. 

In 1861, Paul Broca studied a stroke patient he called “Tan.” He was called this because as a result of brain damage it was the only word he could pronounce. Based on Broca's early work, which of the following brain regions is involved in speech production?
a.
angular gyrus
b.
left temporal lobe
c.
sensory cortex
d.
left frontal lobe
e.
auditory cortex
 

 83. 

Someone who has difficulty speaking after a stroke is suffering from which of the following?
a.
neurogenesis
b.
lesion
c.
aphasia
d.
angular gyrus
e.
interneurons
 

 84. 

The threadlike structures that contain genes are called
a.
synapses.
b.
hormones.
c.
neurons.
d.
chromosomes.
e.
genomes.
 

 85. 

A segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a specific protein is called a
a.
gene.
b.
mutation.
c.
chromosome.
d.
hormone.
e.
neurotransmitter.
 

 86. 

The reproductive advantage enjoyed by organisms best suited to a particular environment is known as
a.
self-regulation.
b.
behavior genetics.
c.
natural selection.
d.
heritability.
e.
nurture.
 

 87. 

Evolutionary psychologists are most likely to emphasize that human adaptiveness to a variety of different environments has contributed to human
a.
naturalistic observation.
b.
genetic mutations.
c.
behavior correlations.
d.
reproductive success.
e.
prenatal development.
 

 88. 

An adaptation is an inherited physical or behavioral characteristic that
a.
increases an organism's chance for survival.
b.
is ecologically disruptive.
c.
enables an organism to control its environment.
d.
may or may not benefit the organism.
e.
has no effect on fitness.
 

 89. 

Which psychological perspective most directly addresses questions about the relative influences of nature and nurture?
a.
behavioral perspective
b.
humanistic perspective
c.
psychopharmacology
d.
cognitive perspective
e.
biopsychosocial perspective
 

 90. 

Mamie is terrified of spiders. She tells her best friend, “Everybody in my family is afraid of spiders, so it must be genetic.” Using the biopsychosocial approach to understanding her behavior, Mamie should
a.
reduce her experiences with spiders to her immediate sensations and feelings.
b.
focus on possible unconscious motivations for her fears.
c.
examine additional psychological and social-cultural influences on fear.
d.
examine how fear is adaptive and has contributed to her ancestors' survival.
e.
explore how her perceptions affect her fear of spiders.
 



 
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