Name: 
 

Unit 6 Practice



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

The introduction of an unpleasant stimulus is to ________ as the withdrawal of an unpleasant stimulus is to ________.
a.
acquisition; extinction
b.
negative reinforcer; positive reinforcer
c.
primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer
d.
punishment; reinforcement
e.
partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement
 

 2. 

Dogs strapped into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shocks
a.
experienced extinction.
b.
underwent spontaneous recovery.
c.
developed learned helplessness.
d.
experienced a discriminative stimulus.
e.
developed a conditioned reinforcer.
 

 3. 

Mr. Schneider frequently tells his children that it is important to wash their hands before meals, but he rarely does so himself. Experiments suggest that his children will learn to
a.
practice and preach the virtues of cleanliness.
b.
practice cleanliness but not preach its virtues.
c.
neither practice nor preach the virtues of cleanliness.
d.
preach the virtues of cleanliness but not practice cleanliness.
e.
preach the virtues of obeying parents but not notice the washing hands rule.
 

 4. 

To teach an animal to perform a complex sequence of behaviors, animal trainers are most likely to use a procedure known as
a.
classical conditioning.
b.
delayed reinforcement.
c.
latent learning.
d.
generalization.
e.
shaping.
 

 5. 

In explaining prosocial behavior, B. F. Skinner would most likely have emphasized
a.
genetic influences.
b.
empathy and compassion.
c.
an unconscious need for social approval.
d.
the internalization of moral values.
e.
the beneficial consequences of prosocial behavior.
 

 6. 

After repeatedly taking alcohol spiked with a nausea-producing drug, people with alcohol dependence may fail to develop an aversive reaction to alcohol because they blame their nausea on the drug. This illustrates the importance of ________ in classical conditioning.
a.
biological predispositions
b.
generalization
c.
negative reinforcement
d.
cognitive processes
e.
spontaneous recovery
 

 7. 

A child who is punished for swearing at home but reinforced for swearing on the school playground is most likely to demonstrate a patterned habit of swearing that is indicative of
a.
negative reinforcement.
b.
instinctive drift.
c.
discrimination.
d.
extinction.
e.
spontaneous reinforcement.
 

 8. 

The researcher most closely associated with the study of classical conditioning is
a.
Edward Thorndike.
b.
Edward Deci.
c.
B. F. Skinner.
d.
Albert Bandura.
e.
Ivan Pavlov.
 

 9. 

An animal trainer is teaching a miniature poodle to balance on a ball. Initially, he gives the poodle a treat for approaching the ball, then only for placing its front paws on the ball, and finally only for climbing on the ball. The trainer is using the method of
a.
successive approximations.
b.
delayed reinforcement.
c.
latent learning.
d.
classical conditioning.
e.
secondary reinforcement.
 

 10. 

A variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after
a.
a specified time period has elapsed.
b.
an unpredictable time period has elapsed.
c.
a specified number of responses have been made.
d.
an unpredictable number of responses have been made.
e.
the desired behavior is performed during a predetermined time interval.
 

 11. 

Rhesus macaque monkeys are more likely to reconcile after a fight if they grow up with forgiving older macaque monkeys. This best illustrates the impact of
a.
observational learning.
b.
immediate reinforcement.
c.
spontaneous recovery.
d.
respondent behavior.
e.
shaping.
 

 12. 

An experimenter plans to condition a dog to salivate to a light by pairing the light with food. The dog will learn to salivate to the light most quickly if the experimenter presents the light
a.
five seconds before the food.
b.
a half-second before the food.
c.
at precisely the same time as the food.
d.
a half-second after the food.
e.
five seconds after the food.
 

 13. 

Most researchers who have examined the effects of viewing televised aggression conclude that
a.
viewing violence takes people's minds off their own problems and thus reduces their aggressive urges.
b.
viewing violence leads children and teenagers to behave aggressively.
c.
there is no correlation between viewing aggression and behaving aggressively.
d.
although viewing violence is correlated with increased aggression, there is no evidence that viewing violence actually leads to aggression.
e.
viewing violence is cathartic and lessens aggressive impulses.
 

 14. 

In the long run, people who practice self-regulation through physical exercise and time-managed programs experience an increase in
a.
unconditional positive regard.
b.
self-transcendence.
c.
the spotlight effect.
d.
self-control.
e.
reaction formation.
 

 15. 

What type of learning sometimes occurs after an extended period of thinking about a problem but little or no direct, systematic interaction with the environment?
a.
operant learning
b.
classical conditioning
c.
observational learning
d.
insight learning
e.
latent learning
 

 16. 

Coffee shops that reward customers with one free cup of coffee after every ten coffee purchases are using a ________ reinforcement schedule.
a.
fixed-interval
b.
variable-interval
c.
fixed-ratio
d.
variable-ratio
e.
intermittent-continuous
 

 17. 

Escape from an aversive stimulus is a ________ reinforcer.
a.
positive
b.
negative
c.
secondary
d.
partial
e.
delayed
 

 18. 

Wolves that were tempted into eating sheep carcasses laced with poison develop an aversion to sheep meat. Which of the following provided the initial evidence leading to this practice?
a.
Robert Rescorla's research on the importance of cognition in classical conditioning
b.
B. F. Skinner's studies on intermittent schedules of reinforcement
c.
Martin Seligman's research on learned helplessness
d.
John Garcia's studies on the importance of biological predispositions in conditioning
e.
Edward L. Thorndike's research on the law of effect
 

 19. 

In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the CS was
a.
the taste of food.
b.
salivation to the taste of food.
c.
the sound of a tone.
d.
salivation to the sound of a tone.
e.
the anticipation of food.
 

 20. 

Who would most likely agree with the following statement concerning the field of psychology? “Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. Introspection forms no essential part of its methods.”
a.
Albert Bandura
b.
John Garcia
c.
John B. Watson
d.
Carl Rogers
e.
Sigmund Freud
 

 21. 

According to B. F. Skinner, human behavior is controlled primarily by
a.
biological predispositions.
b.
external influences.
c.
emotions.
d.
unconscious motives.
e.
conscious thoughts.
 

 22. 

The perception that one's fate is determined by luck reflects
a.
reciprocal determinism.
b.
self-serving bias.
c.
an external locus of control.
d.
the pleasure principle.
e.
the spotlight effect.
 

 23. 

Compared with those who made a purchase choice from among 30 different brands of jam or chocolate, those who chose from among just 6 brands expressed
a.
less self-esteem.
b.
more satisfaction with their choice.
c.
less unconditional positive regard.
d.
more learned helplessness.
e.
less tolerance of the store prices.
 

 24. 

Emma believes that she will succeed in business if she works hard and carefully manages her time. Her belief most clearly illustrates
a.
reaction formation.
b.
reciprocal determinism.
c.
unconditional positive regard.
d.
the self-reference phenomenon.
e.
an internal locus of control.
 

 25. 

Learned helplessness is MOST likely to be associated with
a.
self-serving bias.
b.
an external locus of control.
c.
the false consensus effect.
d.
unconditional positive regard.
e.
the spotlight effect.
 

 26. 

When 4-year-old Michael hit his sister, his Mom placed him in a time-out by having him stand in a corner for 4 minutes. A time-out is considered to be
a.
positive punishment.
b.
negative reinforcement.
c.
positive reinforcement.
d.
negative punishment.
e.
continuous reinforcement.
 

 27. 

The perception that one can strongly influence the outcome and destiny of one's own life exemplifies
a.
the self-reference phenomenon.
b.
the spotlight effect.
c.
the reality principle.
d.
an internal locus of control.
e.
reciprocal determinism.
 

 28. 

In a series of experiments, men found women more attractive and sexually desirable when their photos were framed in
a.
black.
b.
yellow.
c.
violet.
d.
red.
e.
white.
 

 29. 

In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, infants develop a fear of roses after roses are presented with electric shock. In this fictional example, the presentation of the roses is the
a.
conditioned stimulus.
b.
unconditioned stimulus.
c.
unconditioned response.
d.
conditioned response.
e.
fear response.
 

 30. 

An allergy attack triggered by the sight of plastic flowers best illustrates the process of
a.
latent learning.
b.
delayed reinforcement.
c.
generalization.
d.
secondary reinforcement.
e.
spontaneous recovery.
 

 31. 

Resisting the temptation to eat chocolate chip cookies led research participants to subsequently give up sooner than normal on efforts to complete a tedious task. This illustrated that self-control weakens following
a.
an exertion of energy.
b.
free association.
c.
the spotlight effect.
d.
unconditional positive regard.
e.
fixation.
 

 32. 

Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by
a.
cognitive processes.
b.
biological predispositions.
c.
environmental factors.
d.
continuous reinforcement.
e.
latent learning.
 

 33. 

Both classical and operant conditioning are forms of
a.
associative learning.
b.
respondent behavior.
c.
observational learning.
d.
intrinsic motivation.
e.
latent learning.
 

 34. 

A learned association between two stimuli is central to
a.
shaping.
b.
negative reinforcement.
c.
extrinsic motivation.
d.
classical conditioning.
e.
observational learning.
 

 35. 

An organism learns associations between events it does not control during the process of
a.
negative reinforcement.
b.
extrinsic motivation.
c.
classical conditioning.
d.
shaping.
e.
operant conditioning.
 

 36. 

Which of the following factors most influences whether we will imitate a model?
a.
whether the model is rewarded or punished
b.
if the model is seen on television or in person
c.
models that demonstrate antisocial behaviors are generally not imitated
d.
“fantasy” models (such as cartoon characters) are more likely to be imitated.
e.
disreputable, “evil” models are more likely to be imitated
 

 37. 

Dan and Joel, both 4-year-olds, have been watching reruns of “Superman” on television. Joel's mother recently found the boys standing on the garage roof, ready to try flying. What best accounts for the boys' behavior?
a.
shaping
b.
delayed reinforcement
c.
observational learning
d.
immediate reinforcement
e.
classical conditioning
 

 38. 

In a well-known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflated Bobo doll that an adult had just beaten on. This experiment served to illustrate the importance of
a.
negative reinforcement.
b.
operant conditioning.
c.
respondent behavior.
d.
observational learning.
e.
spontaneous recovery.
 

 39. 

In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, a CR was
a.
salivation to the sound of a tone.
b.
salivation to the taste of food.
c.
the sound of a tone.
d.
the taste of food.
e.
sight of the food in the bowl.
 

 40. 

Little Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was paired with a loud noise. In this case, the loud noise was the
a.
unconditioned stimulus.
b.
conditioned stimulus.
c.
conditioned reinforcer.
d.
delayed reinforcer.
e.
primary reinforcer.
 

 41. 

A small-town radio disc jockey frequently announces how much money is currently in a jackpot. Every day several randomly selected residents are called and asked to identify the amount, and thereby win it. Those who keep track of the jackpot amount are most likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule.
a.
fixed-ratio
b.
variable-interval
c.
variable-ratio
d.
fixed-interval
e.
partial-delayed
 

 42. 

The most crucial ingredient in all learning is
a.
shaping.
b.
modeling.
c.
experience.
d.
intrinsic motivation.
e.
maturation.
 

 43. 

Pavlov's research on classical conditioning was important because
a.
it highlighted the role of cognitive processes in learning.
b.
so many different species of animals, including humans, can be classically conditioned.
c.
it demonstrated an essential difference between animal and human learning.
d.
all learning depends on reinforcement.
e.
it demonstrated that rewards were more effective than punishment.
 

 44. 

After expending willpower by stifling prejudice during laboratory tasks, research participants were temporarily less
a.
hungry.
b.
aggressive.
c.
pessimistic.
d.
sexually restrained.
e.
cognitively skilled.
 

 45. 

Electronically recording, amplifying, and displaying information regarding subtle physiological responses is called
a.
acupuncture.
b.
biofeedback.
c.
relaxation training.
d.
psychoneuroimmunology.
e.
psychometrics.
 

 46. 

After Pavlov had conditioned a dog to salivate to a tone, he repeatedly sounded the tone without presenting the food. As a result, ________ occurred.
a.
generalization
b.
negative reinforcement
c.
latent learning
d.
extinction
e.
discrimination
 

 47. 

Mirror neurons provide a biological basis for
a.
the law of effect.
b.
spontaneous recovery.
c.
observational learning.
d.
extrinsic motivation.
e.
insight learning.
 

 48. 

Golf instruction that reinforces short putts before attempting to reinforce long putts best illustrates the process of
a.
generalization.
b.
shaping.
c.
modeling.
d.
discrimination.
e.
delayed reinforcement.
 

 49. 

On the first day of class, Professor Wallace tells her geography students that pop quizzes will be given at unpredictable times throughout the semester. Clearly, studying for Professor Wallace's surprise quizzes will be reinforced on a ________ schedule.
a.
fixed-interval
b.
conditioned-response
c.
variable-interval
d.
variable-ratio
e.
fixed-ratio
 

 50. 

Asking for dates is most likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule.
a.
continuous-ratio
b.
fixed-ratio
c.
variable-interval
d.
variable-ratio
e.
fixed-interval
 

 51. 

Because his football coach frequently yells at him for swearing, Antonio now becomes anxious when he's near his coach. The coach is a(n) ________ for Antonio's anxiety.
a.
negative reinforcer
b.
conditioned stimulus
c.
secondary reinforcer
d.
unconditioned stimulus
e.
primary reinforcer.
 

 52. 

Which of the following is an example of biofeedback?
a.
Milos learns to relax by being provided with information on changes in his heart rate.
b.
Jane decides to work fewer hours after seeing a film linking stress with cancer.
c.
Chico learns to lower his blood pressure by meditating twice a day.
d.
Kecia successfully quits smoking after her psychologist has her smoke so rapidly she cannot tolerate another cigarette.
e.
Guy learns to stop crying after being rewarded with gold stars for bravery.
 

 53. 

Which of the following terms best describes an operant behavior?
a.
automatic
b.
reflexive
c.
voluntary
d.
instinctive
e.
unlearned
 

 54. 

In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was
a.
a tone.
b.
salivation to the sound of a tone.
c.
the presentation of food in the dog's mouth.
d.
salivation to the food in the mouth.
e.
not used in the conditioning trials.
 

 55. 

Compared with nonabused children, those who have experienced a history of abuse show a stronger brain-wave response to an unfamiliar but angry-looking face. This best illustrates
a.
shaping.
b.
generalization.
c.
the law of effect.
d.
negative reinforcement.
e.
punishment.
 

 56. 

In classical conditioning, the
a.
neutral stimulus is presented before the unconditioned stimulus.
b.
unconditioned stimulus elicits the conditioned response.
c.
neutral stimulus elicits salivation.
d.
unconditioned stimulus is the same as the conditioned stimulus.
e.
unconditioned response produces the conditioned response.
 

 57. 

A psychologist would be most likely to use ________ to determine whether nonverbal organisms can perceive different colors.
a.
mirror neurons
b.
modeling
c.
a cognitive map
d.
shaping
e.
extinction
 

 58. 

Operant conditioning involves a learned association between
a.
two responses.
b.
two stimuli.
c.
two reinforcers.
d.
behavior and its consequence.
e.
unconditioned and conditioned stimuli.
 

 59. 

A pigeon is consistently reinforced with food for pecking a key after seeing an image of a human face, but not reinforced for pecking after seeing other images. By signaling that a pecking response will be reinforced, the image of a human face is a(n)
a.
unconditioned stimulus.
b.
partial reinforcement.
c.
discriminative stimulus.
d.
primary reinforcer.
e.
generalized stimulus.
 

 60. 

Chimpanzees learn foraging and tool use by observing other chimpanzees. This best illustrates
a.
generalization.
b.
modeling.
c.
shaping.
d.
insight.
e.
habituation.
 



 
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