Name: 
 

Unit 10



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Mary enjoys socializing with friends and talking with them on her cellphone. Eileen prefers quiet times by herself when she can reflect on her own thoughts. The characteristics of Mary and Eileen indicate that each has a distinctive
a.
fixation.
b.
personality.
c.
attributional style.
d.
collective unconscious.
e.
reaction formation.
 

 2. 

Prior to his use of free association, Freud had encouraged patients to retrieve their forgotten memories by means of
a.
hypnosis.
b.
projective tests.
c.
psychoactive drugs.
d.
fixation.
e.
personality inventories.
 

 3. 

Which of the following techniques was Freud most likely to use in an attempt to discover the hidden conflicts underlying his patients' symptoms?
a.
factor analysis
b.
free association
c.
projective testing
d.
fixation
e.
unconditional positive regard
 

 4. 

Evan is so terrified of snakes that he can't go to the zoo for fear of seeing one. Evan can't remember the first time he was afraid of snakes. Evan's inability to recall when his fear began is best explained by which of the following Freudian concepts?
a.
free association
b.
projection
c.
repression
d.
fixation
e.
manifest content
 

 5. 

According to Freud's theory, the behavior of a newborn is controlled by
a.
the reality principle.
b.
the ego.
c.
the superego.
d.
the id.
e.
anal instincts.
 

 6. 

Freud suggested that in a healthy person the
a.
id is stronger than the ego and superego.
b.
ego is stronger than the id and superego.
c.
superego is stronger than the id and ego.
d.
superego and id are equally strong.
e.
id, ego, and superego are equally strong.
 

 7. 

Jordan feels guilty for hurting his younger brother. Freud would have attributed these feelings to Jordan's
a.
id.
b.
superego.
c.
ego.
d.
collective unconscious.
e.
fixation.
 

 8. 

According to Freud's theory, the ego
a.
is the executive part of personality.
b.
develops before the id.
c.
operates on the pleasure principle.
d.
is the major source of guilt feelings.
e.
operates only on a conscious level.
 

 9. 

A boy's sexual desires for his mother and feelings of hostility toward his father constitute what Freud called
a.
reaction formation.
b.
the Oedipus complex.
c.
reciprocal determinism.
d.
an oral fixation.
e.
displacement.
 

 10. 

Which theory would most likely predict that boys raised without a father figure will have difficulty developing a strongly masculine gender identity?
a.
Gordon Allport's trait theory
b.
Abraham Maslow's humanistic theory
c.
Albert Bandura's social-cognitive theory
d.
Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory
e.
Carl Rogers' humanistic theory
 

 11. 

One night after he heard his parents arguing, 4-year-old Wei had a vivid dream in which he saved his mother from being bitten by a large snake. A psychoanalyst would most likely suspect that Wei's dream reflects a(n)
a.
oral fixation.
b.
reaction formation.
c.
self-serving bias.
d.
Oedipus complex.
e.
external locus of control.
 

 12. 

Freud suggested that the process of identification is most directly responsible for the development of
a.
the Oedipus complex.
b.
free association.
c.
the superego.
d.
erogenous zones.
e.
an inferiority complex.
 

 13. 

A religious leader who attempts to overcome his hidden doubts with intense expressions of spiritual certainty illustrates most clearly the defense mechanism of
a.
reaction formation.
b.
projection.
c.
regression.
d.
displacement.
e.
fixation.
 

 14. 

As her parents became increasingly more abusive toward her, Amity began, with apparent sincerity, to emphatically express her great admiration for her parents. Amity's behavior illustrates most clearly the defense mechanism of
a.
regression.
b.
projection.
c.
displacement.
d.
rationalization.
e.
reaction formation.
 

 15. 

Four-year-old Timmy had not wet his bed for over a year. However, he started bed-wetting again soon after his sister was born. Timmy's behavior best illustrates
a.
reaction formation.
b.
projection.
c.
regression.
d.
denial.
e.
rationalization.
 

 16. 

After an argument with your little brother, you slam the door to your bedroom instead of hitting him. Your action best illustrates which defense mechanism?
a.
reaction formation.
b.
projection.
c.
displacement.
d.
denial.
e.
sublimation.
 

 17. 

Refusing to believe or even to perceive painful realities constitutes the defense mechanism known as
a.
regression.
b.
denial.
c.
displacement.
d.
projection.
e.
reaction formation.
 

 18. 

Alfred Adler was a neo-Freudian who coined the term
a.
oral fixation.
b.
reciprocal determinism.
c.
inferiority complex.
d.
unconditional positive regard.
e.
unconscious.
 

 19. 

Hasina was an abused child; as an adult, she is homeless and squanders any money she can find on alcohol. Alfred Adler would have suggested that Hasina suffers from
a.
an Electra complex.
b.
the spotlight effect.
c.
an oral fixation.
d.
feelings of inferiority.
e.
the Barnum effect.
 

 20. 

Neo-Freudian personality theorists were most likely to disagree with Freud about the importance of
a.
the unconscious dynamics underlying behavior.
b.
childhood sexual instincts.
c.
anxiety and defense mechanisms.
d.
distinguishing between id, ego, and superego.
e.
unconscious impulses and anxieties.
 

 21. 

Karen Horney, a prominent neo-Freudian, disputed Freud's assumption that women
a.
have weak superegos.
b.
suffer an Electra complex.
c.
often experience learned helplessness.
d.
have stronger sexual instincts than men.
e.
never experience a phallic stage of development.
 

 22. 

The development of a research-based, computer-aided tool to improve agreement among raters of Rorschach tests demonstrates an overall concern with
a.
developing ambiguous figures empirically.
b.
providing testable hypotheses.
c.
increasing favorable public opinion.
d.
apply results to real-world problems.
e.
increasing the test's reliability.
 

 23. 

The famous test introduced by Hermann Rorschach asks test-takers to respond to
a.
frightening pictures.
b.
ambiguous stories.
c.
meaningless inkblots.
d.
incomplete sentences.
e.
objective questions.
 

 24. 

Freud emphasized that emotional healing is associated with the
a.
fixation of repressed sexual desires.
b.
projection of repressed fears.
c.
recovery of repressed wishes.
d.
displacement of repressed hostilities.
e.
sublimation of impulses in the id.
 

 25. 

Survivors' vivid memories of Nazi death camp experiences most clearly challenge Freud's concept of
a.
fixation.
b.
repression.
c.
the Oedipus complex.
d.
motivational conflict.
e.
projection.
 

 26. 

Research participants came to anticipate the movements of a character on a computer screen even though they were unable to identify the rule governing its movements. This best illustrates
a.
unconscious implicit learning.
b.
the “spotlight” effect.
c.
projection.
d.
repression.
e.
reciprocal determinism.
 

 27. 

Freud's concept of projection is most similar to what today's researchers call the
a.
spotlight effect.
b.
false consensus effect.
c.
inferiority complex.
d.
Barnum effect.
e.
reaction formation.
 

 28. 

According to terror-management theory, anxiety about our own mortality motivates our pursuit of
a.
self-esteem.
b.
parallel processing.
c.
reciprocal determinism.
d.
the collective unconscious.
e.
an external locus of control.
 

 29. 

Freud's theory of personality has been criticized because it
a.
underestimates the importance of biological contributions to personality development.
b.
is contradicted by recent research demonstrating the human capacity for destructive behavior.
c.
is overly reliant upon observations derived from Freud's use of projective tests.
d.
offers few testable hypotheses that allow one to determine its validity.
e.
relies on overly simplistic explanations of behaviors and conditioning.
 

 30. 

The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of
a.
the self-reference phenomenon.
b.
self-determination.
c.
reciprocal determinism.
d.
factor analysis.
e.
free association.
 

 31. 

According to Maslow, the desire to fulfill one's potential is the motivation for
a.
personal control.
b.
self-actualization.
c.
self-esteem.
d.
unconditional positive regard.
e.
reciprocal determinism.
 

 32. 

Maslow studied the lives of exceptional, healthy, and creative people such as Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson, and Eleanor Roosevelt. For this reason, his theories could be criticized for
a.
lacking validity.
b.
decreased reliability.
c.
reduced generalizability.
d.
employing after-the-fact explanations.
e.
encouraging individualism.
 

 33. 

Which theorist emphasized that an individual's personal growth is promoted by interactions with others who are genuine, accepting, and empathic?
a.
Gordon Allport
b.
Carl Jung
c.
Carl Rogers
d.
Sigmund Freud
e.
Albert Bandura
 

 34. 

Carl Rogers suggested that those who fall far short of their ideal self experience
a.
a self-serving bias.
b.
a negative self-concept.
c.
an external locus of control.
d.
a weak superego.
e.
an internal locus of control.
 

 35. 

Which psychologists are most likely to criticize standardized personality tests for failing to capture the unique subjective experience of the individual personality?
a.
psychoanalytic theorists
b.
trait theorists
c.
social-cognitive theorists
d.
humanistic theorists
e.
terror-management theorists
 

 36. 

Humanistic psychologists would most likely be criticized for underestimating the value of
a.
an internal locus of control.
b.
self-serving bias.
c.
social obligations.
d.
the spotlight effect.
e.
positive psychology.
 

 37. 

Which theorists have been criticized for underestimating the human predisposition to engage in destructive and evil behaviors?
a.
trait theorists
b.
humanistic theorists
c.
psychoanalytic theorists
d.
social-cognitive theorists
e.
terror-management theorists
 

 38. 

Which of the following would most likely be said by a critic of humanistic psychology?
a.
“Humanism only provides after-the-fact explanations of any personality characteristic.”
b.
“Personality traits are not as enduring as humanists suggest.”
c.
“Human behavior is not as predictable across different situations as humanists contend.”
d.
“Humanists focus too much on the situation and not enough on internal factors in explaining behavior.”
e.
“Humanistic concepts are too vague and subjective, making them difficult to measure objectively.”
 

 39. 

Sigmund Freud is to the psychoanalytic perspective as Gordon Allport is to the ________ perspective.
a.
behavioral
b.
humanistic
c.
trait
d.
social-cognitive
e.
self-concept
 

 40. 

An interest in describing and classifying the many ways in which individuals may differ from one another is most characteristic of the ________ perspective.
a.
social-cognitive
b.
trait
c.
humanistic
d.
psychoanalytic
e.
positive psychology
 

 41. 

A personality inventory that utilizes only those items that have been shown to differentiate particular groups of people is called a(n) ________ test.
a.
factor analytic
b.
self-report
c.
aptitude
d.
projective
e.
empirically derived
 

 42. 

The MMPI is an example of a(n)
a.
projective test.
b.
personality inventory.
c.
inkblot test.
d.
self-esteem test.
e.
humanistic test.
 

 43. 

Which of the following tests was empirically derived?
a.
TAT
b.
Rorschach inkblot test
c.
MMPI
d.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
e.
hierarchy of needs
 

 44. 

Over the last few years, Mr. Helmus has been obsessed with bizarre thoughts and has become increasingly agitated and socially withdrawn. Which personality inventory would be most helpful for assessing the nature and severity of his symptoms?
a.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
b.
TAT
c.
Rorschach inkblot test
d.
MMPI
e.
locus of control test
 

 45. 

Which of the following statements would most likely appear on a lie scale?
a.
“I am usually fairly happy.”
b.
“I constantly worry about my health.”
c.
“Most people are willing to lie in order to get ahead.”
d.
“I have never disliked anyone.”
e.
“Most people are concerned with romantic relationships.”
 

 46. 

In convincing people that they can accurately assess their personalities, astrologers, palm readers, and graphologists take advantage of
a.
the spotlight effect.
b.
the self-reference phenomenon.
c.
the Barnum effect.
d.
free association.
e.
factor analysis.
 

 47. 

A person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait dimension of
a.
emotional stability.
b.
extraversion.
c.
openness.
d.
agreeableness.
e.
conscientiousness.
 

 48. 

Emotional instability is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of
a.
openness.
b.
neuroticism.
c.
agreeableness.
d.
conscientiousness.
e.
directness.
 

 49. 

The stability of personality traits over time is greatest among
a.
children.
b.
college students.
c.
30-year olds.
d.
60-year olds.
e.
women.
 

 50. 

People who score high on the Big Five trait dimension known as ________ are also more likely to be morning types (“larks”) rather than evening types (“owls”).
a.
openness
b.
neuroticism
c.
extraversion
d.
conscientiousness
e.
rationalization.
 

 51. 

Arguments as to whether people's behavior is more strongly influenced by temporary external influences or by enduring inner influences best characterize the
a.
psychoanalytic perspective.
b.
person-situation controversy.
c.
self-serving bias.
d.
biopsychosocial approach.
e.
psychosexual stages.
 

 52. 

The social-cognitive perspective emphasizes the interactive influences of our traits and our
a.
temperaments.
b.
situations.
c.
fixations.
d.
self-concepts.
e.
genes.
 

 53. 

Which perspective on human personality emphasizes reciprocal determinism?
a.
psychoanalytic
b.
social-cognitive
c.
trait
d.
humanistic
e.
functionalist
 

 54. 

Because she is often rejected by her parents, Sally mistrusts other people and treats them with hostility, which leads to their rejection of her. This cycle of rejection, mistrust, hostility, and further rejection illustrates what is meant by
a.
an external locus of control.
b.
the spotlight effect.
c.
the self-serving phenomenon.
d.
reaction formation.
e.
reciprocal determinism.
 

 55. 

Because Greta is an extravert, she frequently goes to parties where she is encouraged to laugh and socialize with her friends. Because Jim is an introvert, he frequently spends weekends in the library where it's easy to quietly reflect and study. Greta and Jim best illustrate what is meant by
a.
an external locus of control.
b.
reciprocal determinism.
c.
the self-reference phenomenon.
d.
the Barnum effect.
e.
reaction formation.
 

 56. 

Within the framework of Bandura's reciprocal determinism, an external locus of control refers to a(n)
a.
behavior.
b.
genetic predisposition.
c.
environmental factor.
d.
cognitive factor.
e.
defense mechanism.
 

 57. 

Omar Halasa perceives shy, inhibited styles of behavior to be the interactive outcome of cultural expectations, autonomic nervous system reactivity, and unconscious thought processes. Omar's views best illustrate a(n) ________ approach.
a.
trait
b.
evolutionary
c.
biopsychosocial
d.
humanistic
e.
positive psychology
 

 58. 

Personality is fruitfully studied at multiple levels of analysis because people are best understood as
a.
unconscious information processors.
b.
biopsychosocial organisms.
c.
demonstrating self-serving bias.
d.
possessing enduring traits.
e.
interactions between the id, ego, and superego.
 

 59. 

The body's disease-fighting immune system is most likely to be dampened by
a.
an internal locus of control.
b.
the false consensus effect.
c.
self-serving bias.
d.
a pessimistic attributional style.
e.
an optimistic attributional style.
 

 60. 

Most late adolescents perceive themselves as much less vulnerable than their peers to the HIV virus that causes AIDS. This best illustrates
a.
repression.
b.
the spotlight effect.
c.
reaction formation.
d.
unrealistic optimism.
e.
internal locus of control.
 

 61. 

Excessive self-confidence is especially likely to be facilitated by the difficulty in recognizing
a.
personal control.
b.
free association.
c.
one's own incompetence.
d.
unconditional positive regard.
e.
superego.
 

 62. 

According to the social-cognitive perspective, one of the best ways to predict a person's future behavior is to
a.
identify that person's most central traits by having him or her take a personality inventory.
b.
observe that person's behavior in various relevant situations.
c.
assess that person's general level of self-esteem.
d.
uncover that person's hidden motives, as revealed by projective tests.
e.
measure that person's unconscious conflicts and use of defense mechanisms.
 

 63. 

According to the social-cognitive perspective, the best predictor of students' academic success in college would be their
a.
college entrance test scores.
b.
high school grade-point average.
c.
personal optimism about the future.
d.
performance on the MMPI.
e.
scores on an academic projective test.
 

 64. 

Overestimating the extent to which others notice and evaluate our appearance and performance is called
a.
external locus of control.
b.
self-serving bias.
c.
reaction formation.
d.
the spotlight effect.
e.
fixation.
 

 65. 

Individuals with high self-esteem are more likely than those with low self-esteem to
a.
work persistently at difficult tasks.
b.
experience an external locus of control.
c.
dismiss flattering descriptions of themselves as untrue.
d.
underestimate the accuracy of their own beliefs.
e.
associate with people whose attitudes and personality are very similar to their own.
 

 66. 

A person whose self-esteem is momentarily threatened is especially likely to
a.
demonstrate an independence from social pressure to conform.
b.
criticize the shortcomings of others.
c.
lack a clear sense of gender identity.
d.
experience an internal locus of control.
e.
be motivated by a desire for self-actualization.
 

 67. 

The tendency to accept more personal responsibility for one's successes than for one's failures best illustrates
a.
reaction formation.
b.
an external locus of control.
c.
self-serving bias.
d.
the self-reference phenomenon.
e.
the spotlight effect.
 

 68. 

In national surveys, most business executives say they are more ethical than their average counterpart. This best illustrates
a.
reaction formation.
b.
an external locus of control.
c.
the spotlight effect.
d.
self-serving bias.
e.
reciprocal determinism.
 

 69. 

When people compare their personal qualities with those of the average person, they are most likely to experience
a.
the Barnum effect.
b.
an external locus of control.
c.
the spotlight effect.
d.
high self-esteem.
e.
reciprocal determinism.
 

 70. 

Collectivism is most likely to be emphasized in
a.
the United States.
b.
China.
c.
Europe.
d.
Australia.
e.
Canada.
 

 71. 

In a collectivist culture, individuals are likely to avoid
a.
displaying personal humility.
b.
embarrassing other people.
c.
prolonging conversations.
d.
expressing family loyalty.
e.
personal relationships.
 

 72. 

Compared with those in cultures that value individualism, people in collectivist cultures are especially likely to value personal
a.
modesty.
b.
privacy.
c.
freedom.
d.
achievements.
e.
autonomy.
 

 73. 

One would NOT be likely to observe unusually high rates of divorce in cultures that promote
a.
collectivism.
b.
ethnic diversity.
c.
personal privacy.
d.
individual human rights.
e.
an internal locus of control.
 

 74. 

When Mr. Thompson lived overseas for a year, he was very surprised at how much respect he received from people simply because he was an elderly person. His sense of surprise suggests that he had not previously lived in a culture characterized by
a.
social diversity.
b.
collectivism.
c.
heritability.
d.
individualism.
e.
self-actualization.
 

 75. 

Religious and ethnic diversity are most likely to be appreciated in a culture characterized by
a.
heritability.
b.
individualism.
c.
rationalization.
d.
collectivism.
e.
self-actualization.
 

Short Answer
 

 1. 

According to a number of psychologists, a major purpose of the defense mechanisms described by Freud is the protection of self-esteem. Give an example of how repression, reaction formation, projection, rationalization, and displacement could each be used to protect or even enhance a positive self-image.
 

 2. 

Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers are both considered humanistic psychologists. Explain at least one core belief that Maslow and Rogers shared about human behavior and at least one criticism of their humanistic personality theory.
 

 3. 

Briefly explain how trait theorists develop and test theories such as the “Big Five” personality factors.
 

 4. 

Dr. Brunsman asks his students to self-assess their own studying and retention abilities as students and asks about how often they think other students imitate their studying behaviors. Explain how the spotlight effect and the self-serving bias may influence Dr. Brunsman's results.
 



 
Check Your Work     Start Over