Name: 
 

Motivation and emotion



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Manipulations that decrease blood glucose level cause ____; manipulations that increase blood glucose level cause ____.
a.
an increase in hunger; a decrease in hunger
b.
a decrease in general arousal; an increase in general arousal
c.
a decrease in hunger; an increase in hunger
d.
an increase in general arousal; a decrease in general arousal
 

 2. 

Dr. Linzle has implanted an electrode in the hypothalamus of a rat. When the rat's brain is electrically stimulated, the rat starts to eat again, even if it has just finished a large meal. The electrode is most likely activating the
a.
ventromedial hypothalamus
b.
lateral hypothalamus
c.
magnocellular hypothalamus
d.
parvocellular hypothalamus
 

 3. 

Which of the following approaches to explaining the origins of homosexuality has received the most empirical support?
a.
operant conditioning
b.
biological
c.
classical conditioning
d.
psychoanalytic
 

 4. 

Research into gender differences in mate preference shows that, in comparison to men, women show ____ desire for partners who are intelligent, ambitious and have a high social status and ____ interest in attractiveness.
a.
less; more
b.
more; less
c.
less; less
d.
more; more
 

 5. 

The set point for body weight refers to the
a.
highest weight the person can attain by unrestricted eating
b.
lowest possible weight at which the person can survive
c.
person's current weight
d.
person's natural point of stability in body weight
 

 6. 

According to drive theorists, the foremost motivation for all organisms is to
a.
ensure their own survival and the survival of their species
b.
achieve self-actualization
c.
maintain homeostasis
d.
experience as much pleasant stimulation as possible
 

 7. 

Research evidence suggests that happiness depends more on ____ factors than on ____ factors.
a.
internal; external
b.
external; internal
c.
age; cultural
d.
financial; personality
 

 8. 

Drive theories of motivation are classified as ____ theories, while incentive theories of motivation are classified as ____ theories.
a.
push; pull
b.
sociobiological; sociological
c.
external; internal
d.
constrained; unconstrained
 

 9. 

Dr. McCardle has implanted an electrode in the hypothalamus of a rat. When the rat's brain is electrically stimulated, the rat stops eating. The electrode is most likely activating the
a.
parvocellular hypothalamus
b.
magnocellular hypothalamus
c.
lateral hypothalamus
d.
ventromedial hypothalamus
 

 10. 

An internal state of tension that precedes behavior designed to reduce that tension is referred to as a
a.
need
b.
biostate
c.
fugue
d.
drive
 

 11. 

Lee is about to take his drivers exam. As he enters the testing room he notices that is heart is racing and his palms are sweating. This reaction is part of the
a.
behavioral component in Lee's emotional experience
b.
physiological component in Lee's emotional experience
c.
objective component in Lee's emotional experience
d.
cognitive component in Lee's emotional experience
 

 12. 

The projective test that has been used a great deal to measure affiliation need is the
a.
Sarason Sociability Scale
b.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Test
c.
Thematic Apperception Test
d.
Rorschach Ink Blot Test
 

 13. 

Research on rape has found that approximately 1 out of ____ women have reported that they have been victimized by date rape or an attempted date rape.
a.
33
b.
20
c.
10
d.
7
 

 14. 

The need to master difficult challenges, outperform others, and meet high standards of excellence is referred to as
a.
an intellect motive
b.
a power motive
c.
a competence motive
d.
an achievement motive
 

 15. 

Research on happiness suggests that ____ are more important than ____.
a.
subjective feelings; objective realities
b.
the ability to adapt; the reality of the situation
c.
objective realities; subjective feelings
d.
the reality of the situation; the ability to adapt
 

 16. 

Psychologists who take an evolutionary view argue that natural selection favors behaviors that maximize an individual's
a.
acquisition of territory
b.
self-actualization
c.
reproductive success
d.
material wealth
 

 17. 

The idea that muscles of the face send information to the brain and that this affects the emotion we feel is known as
a.
Darwin's facial expression theory
b.
Schachter's cognitive theory
c.
the facial feedback hypothesis
d.
the James-Lange theory
 

 18. 

Research results have indicated considerable cross-cultural agreement in the identification of all but which of the following emotional expressions?
a.
happiness
b.
sadness
c.
fear
d.
suspicion
 

 19. 

The three components that any complete treatment of emotion should include are
a.
social, situational, cognitive
b.
cognitive, behavioral, physiological
c.
cognitive, situational, physiological
d.
behavioral, physiological, social
 

 20. 

The James-Lange theory of emotions focuses on the ____ determinants of emotions.
a.
cognitive
b.
physiological
c.
behavioral
d.
psychological
 

 21. 

Which of the following effects has NOT been supported by research?
a.
Viewing erotic materials may make some people dissatisfied with their own sexual interactions.
b.
Viewing erotic materials elevates the likelihood of overt sexual activity for a few hours immediately after the exposure.
c.
Viewing erotic materials tends to cause sex crimes.
d.
Viewing erotic materials changes ones attitudes to be more liberal about sexual practices.
 

 22. 

Which of the following statements about polygraphs is most accurate?
a.
Polygraphs can detect positive emotional states with a high degree of accuracy and negative emotional states with a low degree of accuracy.
b.
Polygraphs can detect emotionality that accompanies lying some of the time, but with a high error rate.
c.
Polygraphs can detect lying with almost 100 percent accuracy.
d.
Polygraphs cannot detect emotionality at all.
 

 23. 

A person high in achievement motivation would be expected to show all but which of the following characteristics?
a.
tendency to choose competitive occupations
b.
tendency to seek immediate gratification
c.
greater persistence on tasks
d.
tendency to choose tasks of intermediate difficulty
 

 24. 

What theoretical perspective argues that the increase in obesity in humans is a result of the fact that early humans lived in environments in which there was fierce competition for limited, unreliable food resources and that developed a tendency to consume food when it was present?
a.
body-set point
b.
settling-point
c.
cognitive
d.
evolutionary
 

 25. 

Most of the discernible physiological arousal associated with emotion occurs through the actions of the
a.
medulla
b.
central nervous system
c.
forebrain
d.
autonomic nervous system
 

 26. 

Cannon and Washburn (1912) proposed that hunger is caused by
a.
low blood sugar
b.
lack of food
c.
stomach contractions
d.
changes in leptin levels
 

 27. 

A person's preference for emotional and sexual relationships with individuals of the same, other or either sex refers to a person's ____.
a.
sexual orientation
b.
heterosexuality
c.
homosexuality
d.
bisexuality
 

 28. 

Patrick ate a large breakfast. When he arrived for his 8:00 a.m. class the student next to him offered Patrick a large raisin muffin. Even though Patrick was still quite full from breakfast, he ate the muffin that he was offered. In this instance, Patrick's behavior can best be explained using
a.
instinctive theories of motivation
b.
drive theories of motivation
c.
the self-awareness theory of motivation
d.
incentive theories of motivation
 

 29. 

Sensory-specific satiety refers to
a.
the phenomenon that when there are few foods available the appeal of them can decline quickly
b.
the phenomenon that when there are few foods available the appeal of them can quickly increase
c.
the phenomenon that when there are many foods available the appeal of them can decline quickly
d.
the phenomenon that when there are many foods available people will quickly tire of them and stop eating.
 

 30. 

The fact that the correlation in weight between identical twins reared apart is higher than that between fraternal twins reared together suggests that weight is
a.
influenced more by genetics than by environmental factors
b.
affected equally by genetics and environmental factors
c.
influenced more by environmental factors than by genetics
d.
not affected by either genetics or environmental factor
 

 31. 

Of the following, which has been found to be most strongly associated with happiness?
a.
health
b.
job satisfaction
c.
physical attractiveness
d.
general intelligence
 

 32. 

According to the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion,
a.
the experience of emotion depends on autonomic arousal and your cognitive interpretation of that arousal
b.
emotions develop because of their adaptive value
c.
emotion occurs when the thalamus sends signals simultaneously to the cortex and to the autonomic nervous system
d.
different patterns of autonomic activation lead to the experience of different emotions
 

 33. 

What part of the brain is known for its role in voluntary control over emotional reactions?
a.
amygdala
b.
temporal lobe
c.
prefrontal cortex
d.
thalamus
 

 34. 

Neurons that are sensitive to sugar levels in the blood are referred to as
a.
thalami
b.
rheostats
c.
glucostats
d.
hypothalamic nuclei
 

 35. 

Imagine that your house is on fire and you are afraid. Which of the following explanations best represents Schachter's two-factor theory?
a.
"My shaking must be due to fear, since my house is on fire."
b.
"My fear is a built-in, primary reaction to a dangerous situation."
c.
"I'm afraid because I'm shaking."
d.
"I'm shaking because I'm afraid."
 

 36. 

The fact that identical twins are more likely to share sexual orientation than fraternal twins suggests that sexual orientation is:
a.
due to the environment
b.
in part genetic
c.
largely chemical
d.
primarily hormonal
 

Short Answer ~ Pick Two!
 

 37. 

Discuss the factors that contribute to the development of obesity.
 

 38. 

Briefly explain the parental investment theory and describe the research findings on human gender differences in sexual activity.
 

 39. 

Compare and contrast the James-Lange and Cannon-Bard theories of emotion, and explain how Schachter reconciled these conflicting views in his two-factor theory.
 

 40. 

Briefly discuss how common homosexuality is and the evidence on the determinants of sexual orientation.
 



 
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