Name: 
 

Unit 9



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Infant novelty preferences have been discovered by assessing infants'
a.
conservation.
b.
habituation.
c.
accommodation.
d.
imprinting.
e.
reflexes.
 

 2. 

According to Piaget, an egocentric child can best be described as
a.
selfish.
b.
conceited.
c.
lacking in self-esteem.
d.
cognitively limited.
e.
amoral.
 

 3. 

A postconventional level of morality is most likely to be found in cultures that value
a.
individualism.
b.
utilitarianism.
c.
communism.
d.
social harmony.
e.
socialism.
 

 4. 

The acquisition of a sense of object permanence is most closely associated with the development of
a.
conservation.
b.
concrete operational intelligence.
c.
stranger anxiety.
d.
self-awareness.
e.
egocentrism.
 

 5. 

Harlow observed that most monkeys raised in total isolation
a.
were totally apathetic and indifferent to the first monkeys they encountered.
b.
became incapable of mating upon reaching sexual maturity.
c.
showed slower social development but more rapid cognitive development.
d.
developed no lasting adverse effects when placed in a socially enriched environment.
e.
exhibited abnormal imprinting.
 

 6. 

Three-year-olds who experienced a fire evacuation caused by a burning popcorn maker were unable to remember the cause of this vivid event when they were 10-year-olds. This best illustrates
a.
habituation.
b.
assimilation.
c.
infantile amnesia.
d.
crystallized intelligence.
e.
fluid intelligence.
 

 7. 

Questions about whether anxious children will grow up to be either fearful or relaxed adults most directly highlight the issue of
a.
continuity or stages.
b.
stability or change.
c.
identity or role confusion.
d.
nature or nurture.
e.
assimilation or accommodation.
 

 8. 

A stimulating environment is most likely to facilitate the development of a child's
a.
individualism.
b.
genome.
c.
temperament.
d.
gender typing.
e.
neural connections.
 

 9. 

In which research method are the same people retested over a period of years?
a.
longitudinal
b.
experimental
c.
chronological
d.
cross-sectional
e.
case study
 

 10. 

Parents who discuss and negotiate family rules are especially likely to raise children who are
a.
self-reliant.
b.
insecurely attached.
c.
disobedient.
d.
egocentric.
e.
assimilated.
 

 11. 

Like Piaget, Kohlberg emphasized that children's moral judgments build on their
a.
cognitive development.
b.
social development.
c.
physical development.
d.
economic development.
e.
attachment development.
 

 12. 

Despite huge legal costs and social disapproval, Mr. Lambers refuses to pay income taxes because his conscience will not allow him to support a government that spends billions of dollars on military weapons. Mr. Lambers' reasoning best illustrates Kohlberg's ________ stage.
a.
postconventional
b.
concrete operational
c.
preconventional
d.
egocentric
e.
conventional
 

 13. 

Piaget was convinced that the mind of a child
a.
is like a blank slate at birth.
b.
is not heavily influenced by maturation.
c.
develops through a series of stages.
d.
is heavily dependent on the child's personality.
e.
develops due to psycho-social conflict resolution.
 

 14. 

Instead of happily exploring the attractive toys located in the pediatrician's waiting room, little Sandra tenaciously clings to her mother's skirt. Sandra most clearly shows signs of
a.
habituation.
b.
egocentrism.
c.
insecure attachment.
d.
the rooting reflex.
e.
object permanence.
 

 15. 

The association areas are the last cortical areas to fully develop their
a.
schemas.
b.
teratogens.
c.
neural networks.
d.
primary sex characteristics.
e.
habituation.
 

 16. 

Mr. Eskenazi frowns when his son cries but hugs his daughter when she cries. Mr. Eskenazi's contribution to the gender typing of his children would most likely be highlighted by
a.
twin studies.
b.
social learning theorists.
c.
adoption studies.
d.
evolutionary psychologists.
e.
longitudinal studies.
 

 17. 

Exceptionally inhibited and fearful infants tend to become introverted adolescents. This best illustrates the long-term stability of
a.
temperament.
b.
the critical period.
c.
gender schemas.
d.
the X chromosome.
e.
self-concept.
 

 18. 

Avoiding physical punishment is to ________ morality as respecting the laws of society is to ________ morality.
a.
conventional; postconventional
b.
preconventional; postconventional
c.
postconventional; conventional
d.
conventional; preconventional
e.
preconventional; conventional
 

 19. 

According to Piaget, children acquire the mental operations needed to comprehend such things as mathematical transformations and conservation during the ________ stage.
a.
preoperational
b.
sensorimotor
c.
concrete operational
d.
formal operational
e.
preconventional
 

 20. 

After about 2 weeks, a fertilized egg cell attaches to the uterine wall. What is the developing human called at this point in development?
a.
zygote
b.
fetus
c.
embryo
d.
teratogen
e.
Y chromosome
 

 21. 

Even though Alicia was busy playing when her mother came to pick her up from her babysitter, she quickly ran to her mother, gesturing to be held. Alicia most clearly showed signs of
a.
conservation.
b.
stranger anxiety.
c.
habituation.
d.
egocentrism.
e.
secure attachment.
 

 22. 

To recognize that a face seen in a mirror is his or her own, a child must have a
a.
theory of mind.
b.
secure attachment.
c.
self-concept.
d.
concept of conservation.
e.
gender role.
 

 23. 

Incorporating new information into existing theories is to ________ as modifying existing theories in light of new information is to ________.
a.
conservation; habituation
b.
imprinting; maturation
c.
object permanence; insecure attachment
d.
sensorimotor stage; preoperational stage
e.
assimilation; accommodation
 

 24. 

Authoritarian parents are especially likely to be
a.
inflexible.
b.
educated.
c.
permissive.
d.
trusting.
e.
egocentric.
 

 25. 

Three-year-old Bert, who lives in Alaska where moose roam freely, has learned the schema for moose. When his family visits his cousin Michael on a horse farm, Bert modifies his schema for large, shaggy animals to include horses. This process is called
a.
habituation.
b.
accommodation.
c.
assimilation.
d.
maturation.
e.
conservation.
 

 26. 

The principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects is called
a.
perceptual constancy.
b.
object equivalence.
c.
conservation.
d.
object permanence.
e.
accommodation.
 

 27. 

Mrs. Carmichael secretly dabs some lipstick on the nose of her 2-year-old son and then allows him to see his face in a mirror. The child is most likely to
a.
touch his own nose.
b.
touch the mirror at the point where the lipstick shows.
c.
wave at his mirror image as if it were another child.
d.
assimilate the lipstick mark into his existing self-concept.
e.
become upset because he doesn't recognize his image.
 

 28. 

According to Piaget, a child can represent things with words and images but cannot reason with logic during the ________ stage.
a.
concrete operational
b.
sensorimotor
c.
formal operational
d.
preoperational
e.
postconventional
 

 29. 

As individuals progress through their teen years into early adulthood, their self-concepts typically become
a.
less personalized and unique.
b.
more fluid and changeable.
c.
less integrated.
d.
more positive.
e.
more fluid and less crystallized.
 

 30. 

The best predictor of a couple's marital satisfaction is the
a.
frequency of their sexual intimacy.
b.
intensity of their passionate feelings.
c.
ratio of their positive to negative interactions with each other.
d.
experience or nonexperience of a prior marriage.
e.
high level of attachment between the partners.
 

 31. 

Vincent's ability to reason hypothetically in his geometry class indicates that he is in the ________ stage of development.
a.
concrete operational
b.
formal operational
c.
preconventional
d.
postconventional
e.
preoperational
 

 32. 

Parents who make few demands on their children and use little punishment are
a.
authoritarian.
b.
authoritative.
c.
egocentric.
d.
permissive.
e.
conventional.
 

 33. 

Marie feels socially useful in her career as a financial investment advisor. Erik Erikson would have suggested that Marie experiences a sense of
a.
secure attachment.
b.
conventional morality.
c.
generativity.
d.
conservation.
e.
integrity.
 

 34. 

In Erikson's theory, the sense of integrity achieved in late adulthood refers to the feeling that
a.
one's life has been meaningful.
b.
one is healthy and not dependent upon others.
c.
one is acting ethically.
d.
one's life is full of close friendships.
e.
one can trust the others in their life to care for them.
 

 35. 

According to Erikson, adolescence is to identity as late adulthood is to
a.
integrity.
b.
autonomy.
c.
generativity.
d.
intimacy.
e.
trust.
 

 36. 

One-year-old Eunice is not overly fearful of strangers but she clearly prefers being held by her mother than by anyone else. Her behavior best illustrates
a.
habituation.
b.
the rooting reflex.
c.
secure attachment.
d.
conservation.
e.
egocentrism.
 

 37. 

Sets of expected behaviors for males and for females are called
a.
gender identities.
b.
gender roles.
c.
norms.
d.
gender types.
e.
social learning theory.
 

 38. 

Kathryn and Rafael's third and last child is leaving home for college next year. Their empty nest is likely to be a(n) ________ place.
a.
depressed
b.
happy
c.
anxious
d.
boring
e.
stressful
 

 39. 

Infants accustomed to a puppet jumping three times on stage show surprise if the puppet jumps only twice. This suggests that Piaget
a.
overestimated the continuity of cognitive development.
b.
underestimated the cognitive capacities of infants.
c.
overestimated the impact of culture on infant intelligence.
d.
underestimated the impact of object permanence on infant attachment.
e.
overestimated the prediction and estimation abilities of children.
 

 40. 

The awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceived is known as
a.
attachment.
b.
conservation.
c.
assimilation.
d.
object permanence.
e.
habituation.
 

 41. 

The processes of assimilation and accommodation were most clearly highlighted by
a.
Kohlberg's moral development theory.
b.
Harlow's attachment theory.
c.
Erikson's psychosocial development theory.
d.
Piaget's cognitive development theory.
e.
Lorenz's imprinting theory.
 

 42. 

Erikson suggested that the adolescent search for identity is followed by a developing capacity for
a.
competence.
b.
intimacy.
c.
autonomy.
d.
trust.
e.
schemas.
 

 43. 

Many researchers believe that adult styles of romantic love correspond with childhood patterns of
a.
habituation.
b.
attachment.
c.
conservation.
d.
object permanence.
e.
accommodation.
 

 44. 

The conflicting results of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of aging and intelligence are of greatest relevance to the issue of
a.
continuity or stages.
b.
stability or change.
c.
assimilation or accommodation.
d.
concrete or formal operational thought.
e.
nature or nurture.
 

 45. 

The heart begins to beat during the ________ period of prenatal development.
a.
embryonic
b.
fetal
c.
zygotic
d.
ovular
e.
conceptual.
 

 46. 

The best evidence that 4-month-old infants possess visual memory capabilities comes from research on
a.
imprinting.
b.
conservation.
c.
the rooting reflex.
d.
object permanence.
e.
habituation.
 

 47. 

Identical twins typically begin walking on nearly the same day. This best illustrates the importance of _______ to motor skills.
a.
responsive parenting
b.
genes
c.
accommodation
d.
secure attachment
e.
habituation
 

 48. 

Piaget is best known for his interest in the process of ________ development.
a.
motor
b.
social
c.
cognitive
d.
emotional
e.
physical
 

 49. 

Nageeb thought all nurses were young females until a middle-aged male nurse took care of him. Nageeb's altered conception of a “nurse” illustrates the process of
a.
habituation.
b.
assimilation.
c.
accommodation.
d.
attachment.
e.
imprinting.
 

 50. 

Although Mr. Tong was obviously busy reading an absorbing novel, his 5-year-old daughter kept interrupting him with comments and questions about the TV cartoons she was watching. Before Mr. Tong becomes irritated with his daughter for being inconsiderate, he should be alerted to Piaget's concept of
a.
object permanence.
b.
habituation.
c.
conservation.
d.
egocentrism.
e.
accommodation.
 

 51. 

Chloe can clearly sense when her sister's teasing is intended to be friendly fun or a hostile put-down. This best illustrates that Chloe has developed a(n)
a.
sense of object permanence.
b.
insecure attachment.
c.
concept of conservation.
d.
theory of mind.
e.
critical period.
 

 52. 

Autism spectrum disorder is a disorder characterized by deficient social interaction and an impaired
a.
capacity for stranger anxiety.
b.
sense of object permanence.
c.
theory of mind.
d.
concept of conservation.
e.
attachment.
 

 53. 

Eighteen-month-old Justin follows his mother around the house, clinging tightly to her when he is frightened. This best illustrates
a.
object permanence.
b.
attachment behavior.
c.
stranger anxiety.
d.
the rooting reflex.
e.
habituation.
 

 54. 

Mr. Johnson spends time each day holding and rocking his infant daughter. This time together should serve most directly to promote
a.
habituation.
b.
secure attachment.
c.
stranger anxiety.
d.
egocentrism.
e.
conservation.
 

 55. 

Research indicates that most abusive parents report that they themselves were
a.
raised in a permissive and overindulgent environment.
b.
raised by authoritative parents.
c.
prevented from interacting with childhood peers.
d.
battered or neglected as children.
e.
ignored by their fathers during the critical period.
 

 56. 

Behaviors expected of those who occupy a particular social position define a
a.
norm.
b.
role.
c.
schema.
d.
temperament.
e.
habituation.
 

 57. 

The speed of neurotransmission in the frontal lobe increases during adolescence because of the growth of
a.
myelin.
b.
the self-concept.
c.
the pituitary gland.
d.
secondary sex characteristics.
e.
synapses.
 

 58. 

The ability to think logically about hypothetical situations is indicative of the ________ stage of development.
a.
conventional
b.
preconventional
c.
preoperational
d.
formal operational
e.
postconventional
 

 59. 

According to Erikson, later adulthood is to integrity as young adulthood is to
a.
autonomy.
b.
initiative.
c.
intimacy.
d.
identity.
e.
generativity.
 

 60. 

The term menarche refers to the
a.
onset of male sexual potency.
b.
first menstrual period.
c.
development of the primary sex characteristics.
d.
cessation of menstruation.
e.
end of the critical period.
 

 61. 

Infections of which sexually transmitted disease can be greatly reduced by a vaccination?
a.
PYY
b.
HPV
c.
FTO
d.
HIV
e.
BMI
 

 62. 

Compared with girls living in father-absent families, girls with fathers present are less likely to experience
a.
erotic plasticity.
b.
a sexual response cycle.
c.
teen pregnancy.
d.
the older-brother effect.
e.
refractory periods.
 

 63. 

Abner, a 70-year-old retired teacher, feels that his life has not been of any real value or significance. According to Erikson, Abner has failed to achieve a sense of
a.
basic trust.
b.
intimacy.
c.
autonomy.
d.
integrity.
e.
competence.
 

 64. 

Which newborn reflex involves these steps: tonguing, swallowing, breathing?
a.
sucking
b.
rooting
c.
habituation
d.
maturation
e.
accommodation
 

 65. 

According to Piaget's theory, during the concrete operational stage, a child is still unlikely to demonstrate
a.
object permanence.
b.
comprehension of mathematical transformations.
c.
evidence of assimilation and accommodation.
d.
the ability to think hypothetically.
e.
any evidence of logic.
 

 66. 

Who are likely to show the greatest similarity in temperament?
a.
Ruth and Ramona, identical twins
b.
Philip and Paul, fraternal twins
c.
Larry and Laura, brother and sister
d.
Vincent Sr. and Vincent Jr., father and son
e.
Jim and Rob, who are lifelong friends
 

 67. 

According to Erikson, achieving a sense of identity is the special task of the
a.
toddler.
b.
preschooler.
c.
elementary schoolchild.
d.
adolescent.
e.
adult.
 

 68. 

Individuals who are both with incomplete or unusual combinations of male and female physical features are referred to as
a.
bisexual.
b.
transsexual.
c.
asexual.
d.
intersex.
e.
hypersexual.
 

 69. 

As people progress into old age, their disease-fighting immune systems become
a.
more effective in resisting most life-threatening ailments.
b.
less effective in resisting common cold viruses than in resisting cancer.
c.
more effective in resisting upper respiratory flu than in resisting pneumonia.
d.
completely ineffective in resisting any diseases without specific medication.
e.
less effective at finding and destroying teratogens.
 

 70. 

The age at which people are expected to leave home, get a job, and marry has changed dramatically in Wallonia over the past 50 years. Developmentalists would say that the country's ________ has been altered.
a.
social clock
b.
developmental norm
c.
maturation cycle
d.
family calendar
e.
social identity
 

Short Answer
 

 1. 

Thirteen-year-old Ryan has begun to challenge many of his parents' values and to express his own set of highly idealistic standards. Compare and contrast the explanations for Ryan's behavior that would be given by Kohlberg and by Erikson.
 



 
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