Unit One-Colonial

Social Science Department at Canyon Crest Academy


AP U.S. History

Van Over

Colonial America Unit Guide

1500s to 1763


DIRECTIONS:        This is your study resource to use as we progress through our unit.  It lists objectives, concepts, terms, and an outline of items that may appear on the unit exam or the AP Exam.  Use this guide as you wish; it will not be collected.  However, all material on this guide (and from class) is subject to being tested.


READING ASSIGNMENTS:                 KENNEDY, Chapters 2—6 (This is your textbook)

                                                                Various Historical Documents (as assigned.)


UNIT DATES:                                         August 28--September 11, 2007


ANTICIPATED TEST DATE:                  September 11, 2007




Your weekly agendas may specify certain portions of a chapter, or certain chapters, to be read as homework prior to a day’s lesson.  THIS DOES NOT MEAN THAT YOU SHOULD ONLY READ PAGES LISTED IN YOUR AGENDAS.  FURTHERMORE, IT DOES NOT MEAN THAT YOU ARE NOT ACCOUNTABLE FOR ALL READINGS FOR THE UNIT.  Do not fall into the trap of only reading what is specified in the agendas.




How do you use this Unit Guide?


The Unit Guides in AP U.S. History are designed to help you better analyze the material in the textbook.  Many students will read through their textbooks, only to come away not knowing just what it was they were to learn by reading.  And, in an AP course, you are expected to read everything--and it is a large source of information that will not be covered in class, but is expected that you know. 

The Unit Guide below is arranged by chapter.  First, you will find "Reading Objectives."  In "teacher talk," objectives are those things that you're supposed to know.  So, when you see the phrase "Reading Objectives," that is shorthand for "when you're done reading this chapter, you should be able to..."  One method that students have used in the past is to list these out on paper, leaving plenty of blank space below, and write down information from the book as they encounter it.  They're important, however, because they show you what the authors intended to convey to you as they wrote the information.


Following the Reading Objectives are review questions.  College-level textbooks aren't arranged with section reviews; these questions are similar to those you would find at the end of a section in a typical high school-level textbook.  These questions help you to review material for quizzes and exams.  One helpful method: write out the question, leaving a large blank area following the question.  As you read the chapter and encounter the appropriate information, record the answer in bullet form.


QUIZZES ARE OPEN NOTE!  The only requirement is that you hand-write the information.  If you choose to use these objectives and review questions, you can use these on the quiz as long as you have hand written the information.




HOW TO USE THIS:              As you familiarize yourself with these terms, it is important to not only DEFINE or IDENTIFY the term, but also to know the term’s importance.  Why is it important?  How does it relate to the period we are studying?  What relationship does a term have to another term on the list?  IF YOU MERELY IDENTIFY OR DEFINE THE TERM WITHOUT KNOWING IT’S IMPORTANCE YOU WILL FIND IT DIFFICULT TO SUCCEED ON TESTS AND QUIZZES.


                                                Similar to the objectives and questions discussed above, you can use these on the quiz as well; many students in the past have listed the term along with a definition in their own words (of course, it must be handwritten to be used on quizzes).





Chapter Two: The Planting of English America, 1500--1733



Reading Objectives

  1. State the factors that caused the English to start late on colonization.

  2. Describe the development of the Jamestown colony from its disastrous beginnings to its later prosperity.

  3. Describe the roles of Indians and African slaves in the early history of England’s southern colonies.

  4. Describe the changes in the economy and labor system in Virginia and the other southern colonies.

  5. Indicate the similarities and differences among the southern colonies of Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.


Review Questions:


  1. What factors contributed to England’s establishment of colonies on the North American continent?

  2. What were the diverse purposes of England’s American colonies and how were those purposes altered in the early years of settlement?

  3. What features were common to all of England’s southern colonies, and what features were peculiar to each one?

  4. How did the search for a viable labor force affect the development of the southern colonies?  What was the role of African-American slavery in the early colonial settlements?  Why were two southern colonies initially resistant to slavery?

  5. Discuss the relations between the English settlers and the Indians of the southern Atlantic coast.

  6. Compare and contrast the early colonial empires of Portugal, Spain, and England in terms of motives, economic foundations, and relations with Africans and Indians (see Chapter one).  What factors explain the similarities and differences in the two ventures?



Identify, define, or describe and STATE THE HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE of the following:


Lord De La Warr                   Pocahontas                          Powhattan                             Handsome Lake

John Rolfe                             Lord Baltimore                     Walter Raleigh                     James Oglethorpe

Humphrey Gilbert                 Oliver Cromwell                    John Smith                            nation-state

joint-stock company            slavery                                    enclosure                              House of Burgesses

royal charter                         slave codes                           yeoman                                  proprietor

longhouse                             squatter                                 primogeniture                      indentured servitude

“starving time”                     Act of Toleration                  Barbados Slave Code         Virginia Company

Restoration                           Savannah Indians               Iroquois Confederacy         Ireland

Anglo-Powhattan Wars (1st and 2nd)



Chapter Three: Settling the Northern Colonies, 1619--1700


Reading Objectives:

  1. Describe the Puritans and their beliefs and explain why they left England for the New World.

  2. Explain the basic governmental and religious practices of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

  3. Explain how conflict with religious dissenters, among other forces, led to the expansion of New England.

  4. Describe the changing relations between the English colonists and Indians.

  5. Explain why New York, Pennsylvania, and the other middle colonies became so ethnically, religiously, and politically diverse.

  6. Describe the central features of the Middle Colonies and explain how they differed from New England.

Review Questions:

  1. Compare and contrast the New England and middle colonies in terms of motives for founding, religious, and social composition, and political development.

  2. How did the Puritans’ distinctive religious outlook affect the development of all the New England colonies?

  3. Compare the pattern of relations between colonists and Indians in New England and Pennsylvania.  Why did attempts at establishing friendly relations fail?

  4. What efforts were made to strengthen English control over the colonies in the seventeenth century, and why did they generally fail?

  5. Discuss the development of religious and political freedom in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, and Pennsylvania.  How did the greater degree of such freedoms enjoyed by Rhode Island and Pennsylvania affect life in those colonies?

  6. What economic, social, and ethnic conditions typical of the early southern colonies (Chapter 2) were generally absent in the New England and middle colonies?  What characteristics did the middle colonies have that were not generally present in the South?



Identify, define, or describe and STATE THE HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE of the following:


John Calvin                           Anne Hutchinson                 Roger Williams                     Henry Hudson

William Bradford                  Peter Stuyvesant                 William Laud                         Thomas Hooker

William Penn                         John Winthrop                      King Philip                             John Cotton

Sir Edmund Andros             the “elect”                            franchise                               patroonship

predestination                     freeman                                 “visible saints”                     conversion

“doctrine of a calling”        covenant                               antinomianism                     Massachusetts Bay Co.    

Protestant Reformation     Pilgrims                                  Calvinism                               Dominion of New England

Navigation Laws                   great Puritan Migration      Glorious Revolution             Puritans

“General Court”                   Dutch West India Co.          Separatists                           Protestant Ethic 

Bible Commonwealth         Quakers                                 Mayflower                             Mayflower Compact

Fundamental Orders           New England Confederation                                             


Chapter Four: American Life in the Seventeenth Century, 1607--1692


Reading Objectives:

  1. Describe the basic population structure and social life of the seventeenth-century colonies.

  2. Compare and contrast the different populations and ways of life of the southern colonies and New England.

  3. Explain how the problems of indentured servitude led to political trouble and the growth of African slavery.

  4. Describe how the slave trade and the character of early African-American slavery.

  5. Explain how the New England way of life centered on family, town, and church, and describe the changes that affected this way of life.

  6. Describe the various conditions affecting women and family life in the seventeenth-century colonies.

Review Questions:

  1. How did the factors of population, economics, disease, and climate shape the basic social conditions and ways of life of early Americans in both the South and New England?

  2. How did African-Americans develop a culture that combined African and American elements?  What were some of the features of that culture?

  3. How did the numbers and contitions of women affect family life and society in New England, among southern whites, and among African-American slaves?  Compare and contrast the typical family conditions and ways of life among various members of these three groups.

  4. How did the harsh climate and soil, stern religion, and tightly knit New England town shape the “Yankee character?”

  5. How did the Salem witch episode reflect the tensions and changes in seventeenth-century New England life?

  6. In what ways did the English and Africans who came to America in the seventeenth century have to shape their society and way of life to fit the conditions they faced in the New World?



Identify, define, or describe and STATE THE HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE of the following:


William Berkeley                  Nath anial Bacon                  Indentured Servitude         Slave Codes

Headright System                Jeremiads                             Middle Passage                   Bacon’s Rebellion

Leisler’s Rebellion               Half-Way Covenant



Chapter Five: Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution, 1608--1763


Reading Objectives

  1. Describe the basic population and social structure of the eighteenth-century colonies and indicate how they had changed since the seventeenth century.

  2. Explain how the economic development of the colonies altered the patterns of social prestige and wealth.

  3. Explain the causes and effects of the Great Awakening.

  4. Describe the origins and development of education, culture, and the learned professions in the colonies.

  5. Describe the basic features of colonial politics, including the role of various official and informal political institutions.

Review Questions:

  1. What factors contributed to the growing numbers and wealth of the American colonists in the eighteenth century?

  2. Describe the structure of colonial society in the eighteenth century.  What develops tended to make society less equal and more hierarchical?

  3. What determined social prestige and wealth prior to the eighteenth century, and how did this change as a result of the economic development of the colonies as they emerged into the eighteenth century?

  4. What were the causes and the consequences of the Great Awakening?

  5. What features of colonial politics contributed to the development of popular democracy, and what kept political life from being more truly democratic?

  6. How did the various churches, established and nonestablished, fundamentally shape eighteenth century colonial life, including education and politics?

  7. What made American society far more equal than Britain’s, but seeming less equal than it had been in the seventeenth century?



Identify, define, or describe and STATE THE HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE of the following:


Jonathan Edwards               Benjamin Franklin               Michel-Guillaume de Crèvecoeur     

George Whitefield               John Peter Zenger               Phyllis Wheatley                   

Paxton Boys                          Great Awakening                 Molasses Act

rack-renting                          Regulator movement          old and new "lights"

triangular trade                    naval stores                          Scots-Irish                                    


Chapter Six: The Duel for North America, 1608--1763


Reading Objectives

  1. Explain why France and Britain engaged in a great contest for North America and why Britain won.

  2. Explain how the contest affected Britain ’s American subjects and helped pave the way for their later rebellion.

  3. Describe France ’s North American empire and compare it with Britain ’s colonies.

  4. Explain how North American political and military events were affected by developments on the larger European stage.

Review Questions:

  1. Why did the British and their American colonial subjects win the contest with the French for control of North America ?

  2. In what ways were the American colonists involved in the mother country’s struggle with France ?

  3. How did French relations with the Indians compare with those of Britain and Spain ?

  4. Why did most Indian peoples fight with the French against Britain and its American colonists in the French and Indian War?

  5. Explain why Britain ’s success in defeating the French empire laid the foundations for future failures in dealing with its colonial subjects.

  6. How did events in France , England , and elsewhere in Europe affect the history of North America in this period?

  7. Compare France ’s colonizing efforts in the New World with Spain ’s and England ’s colonies (see especially chapters 1 and 2).  What factors explain France ’s relatively weak impact on the New World compared with that of England ’s and Spain ’s?



Identify, define, or describe and STATE THE HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE of the following:


William Pitt                             Pontiac                                 Hugenots                                                            

French and Indian War       Acadians                               Albany Congress

Iroquois                                 New France                           Proclamation of 1763                        Cajun









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